Massachusetts Science and Technology/Engineering Standards. DRAFT: Based on the Next Generation Science Standards, Dec., 2013. This set of draft revised STE standards will remain in draft form until they are moved forward for adoption.
Motion & Stability : Forces and Interactions
HS-PS2-1. Analyze data to support the claim that Newton’s second law of motion is a mathematical model describing motion and change in motion (acceleration) of objects with mass when acted on by a net force. Use free-body force diagrams and algebraic expressions representing Newton’s laws of motion to predict changes to velocity and acceleration for an object moving in one dimension in various situations.
[Clarification Statement: Examples of data could include tables or graphs of position or velocity as a function of time for objects subject to a net unbalanced force, such as a falling object, an object rolling down a ramp, or a moving object being pulled by a constant force. Predictions of changes in motion can be made numerically, graphically, and algebraically using basic equations for velocity, average speed and constant acceleration.]
HS-PS2-2. Use mathematical representations to show that the total momentum of a system of interacting objects moving in one dimension is conserved when there is no net force on the system.
[Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the qualitative meaning of the conservation of momentum and the quantitative understanding of the conservation of linear momentum in interactions involving elastic and inelastic collisions between two objects in one dimension.]
HS-PS2-3. Apply scientific principles of motion and momentum to design, evaluate, and refine a device that minimizes the force on a macroscopic object during a collision.*[Clarification Statement: Both qualitative evaluations and algebraic manipulations may be used.]
HS-PS2-4. Use mathematical representations of Newton’s Law of Gravitation and Coulomb’s Law to both qualitatively and quantitatively describe and predict the effects of gravitational and electrostatic forces between objects.
[Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the relative changes when distance, mass or charge, or both are changed; as well as the relative strength comparison between the two forces.]
[Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to systems with two objects and does not include permittivity of free space.]
HS-PS2-5. Provide evidence that an electric current can produce a magnetic field and that a changing magnetic field can produce an electric current.
HS-PS2-9(MA). Analyze simple arrangements of electrical components in both series and parallel circuits. Use appropriate instruments to measure the voltage across and current through a resistor. Use Ohm’s Law to determine the resistance in a circuit when given the voltage and current.
HS-PS3-1. Use algebraic expressions and the principle of energy conservation to calculate the change in energy of one component of a system when the change in energy of the other
component(s) of the system, as well as the total energy of the system including any energy
entering or leaving the system, is known. Identify any transformations from one form of
energy to another, including thermal, kinetic, gravitational, magnetic, or electrical energy,
in the system.
[Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to systems of two or three components;
and to thermal energy, kinetic energy, and/or the energies in gravitational, magnetic, or electric fields.]
HS-PS3-2. Develop and use a model to illustrate that energy at the macroscopic scale can be accounted for as either motions of particles and objects or energy stored in fields.
[Clarification Statement: Examples of phenomena at the macroscopic scale could include the conversion of kinetic energy to thermal energy, the gravitational potential energy stored due to position of an object above the earth, and the energy stored (electrical potential) of a charged object’s position within an electrical field. Examples of models could include diagrams, drawings, descriptions, and computer simulations.]
HS-PS3-3. Design and evaluate a device that works within given constraints to convert one form of energy into another form of energy.*
[Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on both qualitative and quantitative evaluations of devices. Examples of devices could include Rube Goldberg devices, wind turbines, solar cells, solar ovens, and generators. Examples of constraints could include use of renewable energy forms and efficiency.]
[Assessment Boundary: Assessment for quantitative evaluations is limited to total output for a given input.]
HS-PS3-4a. Provide evidence that when two objects of different temperature are in thermal contact within a closed system, the transfer of thermal energy results in thermal equilibrium, or a more uniform energy distribution among the objects (second law of thermodynamics) and that temperature changes at thermal equilibrium depend on the specific heat values of the two substances.
[Clarification Statement: Energy changes should be described both quantitatively in a single phase (Q = mc∆T) and conceptually in either a single phase or during a phase change.]
HS-PS3-5. Develop and use a model of electric or magnetic fields to illustrate the forces and changes in energy between two magnetically or electrically charged objects changing relative position in a field.
[Clarification Statement: Examples of models could include drawings, diagrams, and texts, such as drawings of what happens when two charges of opposite polarity are near each other.]
Note: HS-PS3-4b is found in Chemistry.
Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
HS-PS4-1. Use mathematical representations to support a claim regarding relationships among the frequency, wavelength, and speed of waves traveling in various media. Recognize that electromagnetic waves can travel through empty space (without a medium). [Clarification Statement: Examples of situations to consider could include electromagnetic radiation traveling in a vacuum and glass, sound waves traveling through air and water, and seismic waves traveling through the Earth. Relationships include v = λf, T = 1/f, and the qualitative comparison of the speed of a transverse (including electromagnetic) or longitudinal mechanical wave in a solid, liquid, gas, or vacuum (if applicable).]
[Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to algebraic relationships and not to include Snell’s Law.]
HS-PS4-3. Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind the idea that electromagnetic radiation can be described either by a wave model or a particle model, and that for explaining reflection, refraction, resonance, interference, diffraction, and the photoelectric effect, one model is more useful than the other.
[Clarification Statement: Includes both transverse (including electromagnetic) and longitudinal mechanical waves.]
HS-PS4-5. Communicate technical information about how some technological devices use the principles of wave behavior and wave interactions with matter to transmit and capture
information and energy.*
[Clarification Statement: Examples of technological devices could include solar cells capturing light and converting it to electricity; medical imaging; and communications technology. Examples of principles of wave behavior include resonance, photoelectric effect, and interference.]
[Assessment Boundary: Assessments are limited to qualitative information. Assessments do not include band theory.]
Note: HS-PS4-2 and HS-PS4-4 from NGSS are not included.