ATP molecules in cells undergo a process called hydrolysis. The equation below represents this process.
ATP + H2O → ADP + Pi
( Pi = inorganic phosphate)
What always happens within cells as a result of ATP hydrolysis?
A. Water is produced.
B. Chemical energy is released.
C. Phosphorus atoms are used up.
D. Carbohydrate building blocks are formed.
Feb 2017 MCAS.
Some bacteria produce cellulase, a substance that speeds up the breakdown
of cellulose in plant cell walls. Cellulase is an example of which of the following?
A. a carbohydrate B. an enzyme C. a hormone D. an organelle
Feb 2017 MCAS. Protein pumps actively transport ions across a cell’s plasma membrane. What molecule directly supplies the energy required for this transport?
A. ATP B. cholesterol C. oxygen D. tRNA
Collagen is found in connective tissue throughout the human body. Collagen is made of three amino acid chains that are twisted around one another. Which of the following best explains why collagen is classified as a protein?
A. It is found in a tissue.
B. It is made up of amino acids.
C. It is made up of twisted chains.
D. It is found throughout the human body
Which of the following is a characteristic that distinguishes
viruses from B. thetaiotaomicron and S. epidermidis?
A. Viruses lack mitochondria.
B. Viruses lack genetic material.
C. Viruses are unable to accumulate mutations.
D. Viruses are unable to reproduce outside of host cells.
Which of the following describes one way B. thetaiotaomicron helps in digestion?
A. It breaks down lipids into fatty acids.
B. It breaks down proteins into amino acids.
C. It breaks down polysaccharides into simpler sugars.
D. It breaks down nucleic acids into nitrogenous bases.
A scientist is trying to determine how closely related two species of plants are. Which of the following would be most useful for the scientist to compare?
A. the root depths of the plants
B. the leaf structures of the plants
C. the genetic sequences of the plants
D. the nutrient requirements of the plants
Spring 2017 . Which of the following best describes how enzymes affect chemical reactions?
A. They speed up the rate of reactions.
B. They change the reactants into ions.
C. They dissolve the products of
D. They take the place of one of the
The diagram below shows a chloroplast and some of the components of the
reactions that occur in chloroplasts.
Which of the following is a product of the reactions that take place in a chloroplast?
A. hydrogen gas
C. oxygen gas
In which of the following ways does the plasma membrane [lipid bilayer] regulate the entry of molecules into a cell?
A. The membrane allows only certain molecules to move into the cell.
B. The membrane destroys most molecules so that they do not enter the cell.
C. The membrane changes only certain molecules into ions before they move into the cell.
D. The membrane allows most molecules to transfer energy to the cell without entering the cell.
In a cell, a phosphate group is added to ADP to form ATP. Which of the
following best describes the importance of the formation of ATP?
A. It connects amino acids.
B. It provides energy for the cell.
C. It creates new polysaccharides.
D. It catalyzes chemical reactions.
The energy that primary consumers use for metabolism and growth comes
directly from which of the following sources?
A. organic compounds synthesized by producers
B. organic compounds released by decomposers
C. organic compounds stored in carnivore tissues
D. organic compounds absorbed from the environment