KaiserScience

Home » Biology » MCAS Anatomy and Physiology

MCAS Anatomy and Physiology

Start here

Advertisements

Feb 2016 MCAS. Mature red blood cells in mammals contain the protein hemoglobin but do not contain a nucleus. The nucleus is lost as the red blood cell matures.
Which of the following can be concluded about mammalian red blood cells from this information?

A. The cells store their DNA in ribosomes.
B. The cells have no functionality once the nucleus is lost.
C. The cells divide by meiosis to produce more red blood cells.
D. The cells perform transcription and translation before the nucleus is lost.

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

Secretions from the pancreas contain compounds called lipases. Lipases increase the rate of digestion of lipids. Lipases are an example of which of the following?

A. enzymes
B. hormones
C. nucleic acids
D. simple sugars

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

Each part of the human digestive system has a specific function. Which of the
following activities best models the role of the esophagus?

A. shaking a small piece of chalk in a plastic bottle
B. cutting a clay cube into smaller and smaller cubes
C. squeezing a small greased ball through plastic tubing
D. placing a small piece of egg in dilute hydrochloric acid

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

Here are some problems associated with four organs of the human digestive system.

1 Acid inside this organ begins to dissolve some of its tissue lining.

2 An infection prevents the movement of nutrients through this organ’s walls into the bloodstream.

3 Inflamed tissue prevents the smooth passage of food through this organ
after swallowing.

4 Swelled-up veins make eliminating wastes from this organ difficult.

Which organ is most likely the stomach?

A. organ 1 . B. organ 2 C. organ 3 D. organ 4

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

Feb 2016 MCAS: At high altitudes, air is less dense than at sea level because of decreased air pressure. This means that a person who ascends to high altitudes takes in fewer oxygen molecules per breath.

a. Describe and explain an immediate response that occurs in the respiratory system when a person first reaches high altitudes.

b. Describe and explain an immediate response that occurs in the circulatory system when a person first reaches high altitudes.

If a person lives at high altitudes for an extended period of time, other body responses occur. One response is an increase in the number of red blood cells.

c. Explain how this response is helpful to the body.

At high altitudes, air temperature is also generally colder than at sea level.

d. Describe and explain one internal body response that occurs when a person has been outside long enough for his core temperature to drop.

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

The heart is part of the circulatory system.The heart is part of the circulatory system.

a. Describe the primary function of the heart.

Medical researchers are working on developing artificial hearts. Three of the many requirements for the design of an artificial heart are listed below.

• An artificial heart must connect to the pulmonary artery (artery connected to the lungs).

• An artificial heart must connect to the superior vena cava and inferior vena cava(large veins).

• An artificial heart must be able to function at different speeds when a person is exercising and is at rest.

b. Describe how each of the requirements listed above would help the body of an individual with an artificial heart function normally.

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

In the human heart, a group of cells in the wall of the right atrium produces nerve impulses that stimulate cardiac muscle. What do these nerve impulses directly control?

A. the amount of oxygen in the blood
B. the release of platelets into the blood
C. the speed at which the heart pumps blood
D. the path blood takes when it leaves the heart

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

Low blood pressure can be life-threatening. To help maintain a stable blood pressure, receptors in the heart detect changes in blood pressure. Information about blood pressure changes is then sent to the brain. If blood pressure is too low, the brain sends a message to the heart to beat faster. Based on this information, which of the following systems are directly involved in keeping blood pressure stable?

A. circulatory, muscular, nervous
B. circulatory, immune, skeletal
C. excretory, immune, muscular
D. excretory, nervous, skeletal

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

When astronauts are in low-gravity environments, their bodies begin to release stored calcium. As a result, which of the following most likely occurs when an astronaut returns to Earth?
A. The risk of inflamed tendons increases.
B. The chance of breaking a bone increases.
C. The stomach’s level of functioning decreases.
D. The blood’s ability to carry oxygen decreases.

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

During exercise, a person’s muscles need a constant supply of ATP. To meet this need, the rate of which of the following processes increases?

A. cellular respiration
B. mitosis
C. protein synthesis
D. transcription

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

Feb 2016 MCAS. When astronauts are in low-gravity environments, their bodies begin to release stored calcium. As a result, which of the following most likely occurs when an astronaut returns to Earth?

A. The risk of inflamed tendons increases.
B. The chance of breaking a bone increases.
C. The stomach’s level of functioning decreases.
D. The blood’s ability to carry oxygen decreases.

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

Feb 2016 MCAS. An altered form of the structural protein collagen causes a condition in which bones are weak and break easily. Which of the following are components of collagen?

A. amino acids . B. fatty acids . C. monosaccharides . D. nucleotides

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

Secretions from the pancreas contain compounds called lipases. Lipases increase the rate of digestion of lipids. Lipases are an example of which of the following?

A. enzymes     B. hormones      C. nucleic acids     D. simple sugars

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

Feb Biology MCAS 2016

The axons of some vertebrate neurons are wrapped with special cells called Schwann cells, as shown below.

Schwann cells in nerves

Which type of signal jumps from node to node between the Schwann cells to move down the axon?

A. a digital pulse            B. a magnetic pulse
C. an electrical signal    D. a glycoprotein signal

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

Base your answers to questions 35 through 37 on the diagram below
and on your knowledge of biology.

Nerve cell neurotransitter

35. The process represented in the diagram best illustrates

(1) cellular communication
(2) muscle contraction
(3) extraction of energy from nutrients
(4) waste disposal

36. Which statement best describes the diagram?

(1) Nerve cell X is releasing receptor molecules.
(2) Nerve cell Y is signaling nerve cell X.
(3) Nerve cell X is attaching to nerve cell Y.
(4) Nerve cell Y contains receptor molecules for substance A.

37. A drug is developed that, due to its molecular shape, blocks the action of substance A. Which shape would the drug molecule most likely resemble?

neurotransmitter shapes

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

Base your answers to questions 56 through 58 on the diagram below.

Nerves synapse muscle Q&A

56 In region F, there is a space between nerve cells C and D.
Cell D is usually stimulated to respond by:

(1) a chemical produced by cell C moving to cell D
(2) the movement of a virus from cell C to cell D
(3) the flow of blood out of cell C to cell D
(4) the movement of material through a blood vessel that forms between cell C and cell D

57 If a stimulus is received by the cells at A, the cells at E will most likely use energy obtained from a reaction between

(1) fats and enzymes     (3) glucose and oxygen
(2) ATP and pathogens  (4) water and carbon dioxide

58 State one possible cause for the failure of muscle E to respond to a stimulus at A.

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

A bacteria, S. epidermidis, can sometimes infect wounds. The symptoms of the infection
include swelling, pain, pus, skin that is warm to the touch, and redness at the infection site. Based on the symptoms, which of these human body systems work together to restore homeostasis?

A. circulatory system and immune system
B. immune system and reproductive system
C. skeletal system and respiratory system
D. respiratory system and nervous system

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

A high respiratory rate usually indicates that a person’s body needs more

A. antibodies.
B. carbon dioxide.
C. oxygen.
D. platelets.

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

The human skeletal system has many important functions, including movement. As a person ages, movement can become difficult. Ligaments become less elastic and cartilage is damaged.

a. Considering the function of ligaments, explain why less elastic ligaments could cause movement to be difficult.

b. Considering the function of cartilage, explain why damaged cartilage could cause movement to be difficult.

c. Identify two functions of the skeletal system besides movement.

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

Which of the following structures transmits nerve impulses between the
brain and most motor and sensory neurons?

A. carotid artery
B. diaphragm
C. esophagus
D. spinal cord

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

 

 

Advertisements
%d bloggers like this: