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MCAS Cell biology, mitosis, meiosis, fertilization

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Different types of cells in the human body undergo mitosis at different rates. Which of the following statements best explains why skin cells frequently undergo mitosis?

A. Skin cells contain molecules of DNA.
B. Skin cells constantly need to be replaced or repaired.
C. Skin cells have large numbers of sensory nerve receptors.
D. Skin cells constantly need to produce antibodies to fight off infections.

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Mice with the same parents can have different traits. Which of the following
best explains how most of these differences occur?

A. Gametes join by binary fission.
B. Cells divide by asexual reproduction.
C. Genes assort independently during meiosis.
D. Spontaneous mutations occur during mitosis.

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Which of the following is always part of normal sexual reproduction?

A. The male produces gametes by mitosis.

B. An offspring looks identical to the parents at birth.

C. The female carries only one fertilized egg at a time.

D. An offspring receives half its chromosomes from each parent.

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Various MCAS questions may be related to bacteria.

a. Identify the process that bacteria cells use to reproduce.

b. Describe two similarities between the process that skin cells use for cell division and the process that you identified in part (a).

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2015 MCAS

The illustration below shows one chromosome pair in a zygote. The zygote was produced by sexual reproduction.

cell 2 chromosomes

Assuming normal meiosis and fertilization occurred, which illustration shows the egg and sperm that produced this zygote?

MCAS zygote fertilization

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The diagram below shows a plant cell at a particular stage in the cell cycle. This stage occurs immediately after which cellular process?

MCAS plant cell plate

A. crossing over
B. DNA replication
C. fertilization
D. mitosis

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2016 MCAS

Which of the following must occur before mitosis can begin?

A. DNA must be replicated in the nucleus.
B. RNA must move to the center of the nucleus.
C. Chromosomes must attach to the cell membrane.
D. Ribosomes must move to opposite sides of the cell.

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Each summer, up to 40% of the lobsters in a certain area lose one of their claws due to injury. By late fall, the missing claw usually begins to grow back. Which of the following describes the process by which lobsters grow new claws?

A. Lysosomes fuse together to recycle matter to build a new claw.
B. Mitotic cell division adds new cells to rebuild the lobster’s claw.
C. Facilitated diffusion moves body cells from the remaining claw to the new claw.
D. Cellular respiration creates nutrients to enlarge existing cells in the lobster’s claw.

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2014 MCAS

Sharks typically reproduce sexually. A particular female shark, however, gave birth in a zoo despite having no recent contact with a male shark.

a. Identify the type of cell division that produces eggs and sperm in animals such as sharks.

b. Describe what normally happens during fertilization in animals such as sharks. Be sure to identify the end product of fertilization.

Female sharks can store sperm after mating and then wait to fertilize their eggs.

Scientists investigated whether the female shark in the zoo did this.

c. Describe how DNA analysis can determine if the shark reproduced using stored sperm or if she reproduced asexually. Be sure to include the source(s) of DNA being analyzed and the results of the analysis in your answer.

d. Explain why sexual reproduction is important for the long-term survival of shark species.

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2016 MCAS open response question

The diagram below represents a plant cell with three structures labeled X, Y, and Z.

MCAS Plant cell

Plant cells and fungal cells have many of the same types of organelles. Structures X and Y are found in both plant cells and fungal cells. Structure Z is found in plant cells, but not in fungal cells.

a. Identify structure Y and describe its main function.

b. Identify structure Z and explain how plants use this structure to survive.

c. Explain how fungi can survive without structure Z

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Each summer, up to 40% of the lobsters in a certain area lose one of their claws due to injury. By late fall, the missing claw usually begins to grow back. Which of the following describes the process by which lobsters grow new claws?

A. Lysosomes fuse together to recycle matter to build a new claw.
B. Mitotic cell division adds new cells to rebuild the lobster’s claw.
C. Facilitated diffusion moves body cells from the remaining claw to the new claw.
D. Cellular respiration creates nutrients to enlarge existing cells in the
lobster’s claw.

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2017 MCAS

The diagram below shows a chloroplast and some of the components of the reactions that occur in chloroplasts.

Chloroplast

Which of the following is a product of the reactions that take place in a chloroplast?

A. hydrogen gas      B. nitrate      C. oxygen gas       D. protein

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In which of the following ways does the plasma membrane regulate the entry of molecules into a cell?

Creative Biomart Lipidsome-Based-Membrane-Protein-Production

A. The membrane allows only certain molecules to move into the cell.
B. The membrane destroys most molecules so that they do not enter the cell.
C. The membrane changes only certain molecules into ions before they move into the cell.
D. The membrane allows most molecules to transfer energy to the cell without entering the cell.

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Many  animals  have  either internal  or external  skeletons that  provide  support and  structure. Which  of the  following  parts  of  plant  cells  play  a  similar  role?

A.  cell membranes
B.  cell  walls
C.  chloroplasts
D.  cytoplasm

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Sample response: Sharks typically reproduce sexually.

 

 

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