What are proteins? Surprise – they are chemicals!
They’re made of smaller chemical units called amino acids.
Here we see 2 amino acids joining together to make a mini-protein.
Some atoms are left over: 1 O and 2 H.
They float off as an H2O molecules (water – which is another chemical)
Imagine getting many amino acids.
Then they bond to each other, making a chain.
Then it folds up into a 3D shape – that’s a protein.
Where do our body’s proteins come from?
We eat food with proteins – vegetarian or meat – and break them down into individual amino acids.
Then our DNA instructs our cells to attach them in a new sequence.
What is their job?
Some float in the lipid bilayer (cell membrane)
They control which molecules enter or leave the cell.
Some are hormones (chemical messengers)
They’re released in one part of the body and travel to another part.
Cell organelles are made of proteins and lipids
Hair and nails are made of protein
Bone isn’t mysterious – it is a matrix of protein fibers and minerals
Antibodies are a special type of protein; they have a shape which attaches to bacteria or viruses.
Chemical reactions in our cells, by themselves, are too slow.
So some proteins are specially shaped to speed of those reactions.
Such proteins are called enzymes.
Skin pigments are from colorful proteins.
Eye pigments are from colorful proteins.
HS-LS1-6. Construct an explanation based on evidence that organic molecules are primarily composed of six elements, where carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms may combine with nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus to form monomers that can further combine to form large carbon-based macromolecules.
• Monomers include amino acids, mono- and disaccharides, nucleotides, and fatty acids.
• Organic macromolecules include proteins, carbohydrates (polysaccharides), nucleic acids, and lipids.
Disciplinary Core Idea Progression Matrix: PS1.A Structure of matter
That matter is composed of atoms and molecules can be used to explain the properties of substances, diversity of materials, how mixtures will interact, states of matter, phase changes, and conservation of matter.