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Table of contents

Astronomy: Learning Standards

Difference between astronomy and astrology

Light pollution

Earth-Moon system

Planets and dwarf planets

Solar system: Our earliest ideas

Solar System: Medieval ideas

Solar System: Our modern view


Our Sun, and nuclear fusion


Light pollution

The Big Bang theory

The universe

History of Astronomy

Ancient Greeks

Ulugh Beg, medieval Samarkand/Uzbekistan, astronomer

Copernicus, Tycho Brahe, Kepler and Galileo Galilei


Modern era

Special topics

Proof that the Earth is revolving

Leap seconds

Neutrino astronomy

Look up at the night sky – Are there immensely huge things that are just a bit too faint for the human eye to see? You betcha! Check out this amazing composite photo. This shows the actual apparent size of deep space objects, in our night sky, if they were brighter.

Here are the same object labeled

Actual size of deep space objects if they were brighter labeled

The images are in scale with one another, including the Moon, but not to the Milky Way background.

1. The Moon.
2. Andromeda Galaxy.
3. Triangulum Galaxy.
4. Orion Nebula.
5. Lagoon Nebula.
6. Pinwheel Galaxy.
7. Sculptor Galaxy.
8. Supernova remnant 1006.
9. Veil Nebula.
10. Helix Nebula.
11. Sombrero Galaxy.
12. Crab Nebula.
13. Comet Hale-Bopp (c. 1997)
14. Venus.
15. Jupiter.
16. International Space Station.


“Astronomy is the study of the Universe and the changes that take place in and around all objects moving through space. It’s more than just Earth and our Solar System. The study of astronomy covers every planet, object, and bit of energy flowing through the universe.

So where did the word cosmos come from? It’s actually a Greek word that describes an orderly and interconnected universe. Astronomy is the study of that universe and as you learn more, you will discover how each part is connected to the others. “

– http://www.cosmos4kids.com/

Astronomy Amateur 3 V2CC BY-SA 3.0view terms User Halfblue on en.wikipedia

Astronomy Amateur 3 V2CC BY-SA 3.0view terms
User Halfblue on en.wikipedia

Also on this website

Gravitational repulsion and the Dipole Repeller

External links

NASA Jet Propulsion Lab Infographics


“Interestingly, according to modern astronomers, space is finite. This is a very comforting thought– particularly for people who can never remember where they have left things.”

– Woody Allen

Why should humanity eventually colonize the stars?

“Ask ten different scientists about the environment, population control, genetics and you’ll get ten different answers, but there’s one thing every scientist on the planet agrees on. Whether it happens in a hundred years or a thousand years or a million years, eventually our Sun will grow cold and go out. When that happens, it won’t just take us. It’ll take Marilyn Monroe and Lao-Tzu, Einstein, Morobuto, Buddy Holly, Aristophanes .. and all of this .. all of this was for nothing unless we go to the stars.”

– Writer J. Michael Straczynski, from a character’s speech (Commander Sinclair) in Babylon 5, season 1, “Infection”


This website is educational. Materials within it are being used in accord with the Fair Use doctrine, as defined by United States law.

§107. Limitations on Exclusive Rights: Fair Use

Notwithstanding the provisions of section 106, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phone records or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use, the factors to be considered shall include:

the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes;
the nature of the copyrighted work;
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