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Proof that Earth revolves

How do we know that the Earth revolves around the Sun?

James Bradley’s Efforts to Observe Stellar Parallax (1700s)

http://astunit.com/astunit_tutorial.php?topic=heliocentric

If you are at an intermediate position (between the poles and equator) then the stars overhead, as the year passes, would appear to move in (very tiny) elliptical shapes.

StellarAberration1m“. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikipedia

Another explanation

When Earth moves toward a star, the star will appear slightly bluer (only high-tech instruments can measure this) while it will appear redder when Earth is on the other side of the orbit and moves in the opposite direction. This effect proves that Earth has a velocity relative to the stars, similar to aberration.

http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/our-solar-system/41-our-solar-system/the-earth/orbit/88-is-there-a-proof-that-earth-moves-intermediate

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How do we know that the Sun revolves around the center of our galaxy?

If the sun and other stars were not revolving around the galaxy, then they would have to be condensing into a smaller and smaller galaxy as gravity did its job. Observation of Doppler shifting can illustrate which is happening [and it’s the former, not the latter]

http://www.quora.com/Do-we-know-if-the-sun-rotates-around-something-else

Learning Standards

2016 Massachusetts Science and Technology/Engineering Curriculum Framework
ESS1. Earth’s Place in the Universe
8.MS-ESS1-1b. Develop and use a model of the Earth-Sun system to explain the cyclical pattern of seasons, which includes Earth’s tilt and differential intensity of sunlight on different areas of Earth across the year.
8.MS-ESS1-2. Explain the role of gravity in ocean tides, the orbital motions of planets, their moons, and asteroids in the solar system

Next Generation Science Standards

ESS1.B: Earth and the Solar System: The solar system consists of the sun and a collection of objects, including planets, their moons, and asteroids that are held in orbit
around the sun by its gravitational pull on them. (MS-ESS1-2),(MSESS1-3)

Science & Engineering Practices

● Ask questions that arise from careful observation of phenomena, or unexpected results, to clarify and/or seek additional information.
● Ask questions that arise from examining models or a theory, to clarify and/or seek additional information and relationships.

SAT Subject Test in Physics
Circular motion, such as uniform circular motion and centripetal force