Home » Biology » Cells



Characteristics of Life
Organelles, an introduction
Organelles: In more depth

What goes on inside a cell?

What is the role of enzymes in cells?



Endocytosis and exocytosis

Types of cells



Cell reproduction


Asexual reproduction


Honors Biology

Active transport across cell membranes

Ion channels and carrier proteins

Endosymbiosis: origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotes


Size and scale

The amazing cell and DNA size and scale app!

Cells – how big? from a hair down to a virus

Interactive scale of the Universe (No, really, the entire known scale!)

Numbersleuth magnifying the Universe

Powers of 10: Molecular Expressions from FSU

If the moon were only 1 pixel: A tediously accurate scale model of the solar system 😉

Nikon Universcale

Powers of Ten™ (1977) by Charles and Ray Eames



Cells are packed

Here is a (false color) example of proteins in a cell’s cytoplasm – notice how densely packed this is.

Densely packed proteins in cytoplasm


Virtual labs

PhET membrane channels app

Serendip diffusion applet


Learning Standards

Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks: Biology

6.MS-LS1-1. Provide evidence that all organisms (unicellular and multicellular) are made of cells.

6.MS-LS1-2. Develop and use a model to describe how parts of cells contribute to the cellular functions of obtaining food, water, and other nutrients from its environment, disposing of wastes, and providing energy for cellular processes.

Disciplinary Core Idea Progression Matrix: LS1.A Structure and function

Grades 6-8: All living things are made up of cells. An organism can be made of one cell
(unicellular) or many cells (multicellular). Within cells, specialized structures are responsible for specific functions. In multicellular organisms, cells work together to form tissues and organs that are specialized for particular body functions.

Grades 9-10: Systems of specialized cells within organisms carry out essential functions of life. Any one system in an organism is made up of numerous parts. Feedback mechanisms maintain an organism’s internal conditions within certain limits and mediate behaviors.


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