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Geothermal power

Content objective:

What are we learning? Why are we learning this?

content, procedures, skills

Vocabulary objective

Tier II: High frequency words used across content areas. Key to understanding directions, understanding relationships, and for making inferences.

Tier III: Low frequency, domain specific terms

Building on what we already know

What vocabulary & concepts were learned in earlier grades?
Make connections to prior lessons from this year.
This is where we start building from.

There is a tremendous amount of heat inside the Earth. Over time, this heat is slowly moving from high energy regions (inside the Earth) towards low energy regions (through the Earth’s surface, out into space.)

This creates a heat gradient.

We can use this heat energy as it is moving outwards.

earth-science-volcanoes-339345-1280x1024

Dry steam power plant

“Dry steam plants are the most common types of geothermal power plants, accounting for about half of the installed geothermal plants. They work by piping hot steam from underground reservoirs directly into turbines from geothermal reservoirs, which power the generators to provide electricity. After powering the turbines, the steam condenses into water and is piped back into the earth via the injection well.”

Dry steam geothermal

Flash Steam power

“Flash steam plants differ from dry steam because they pump hot water, rather than steam, directly to the surface. These flash steam plants pump hot water at a high pressure from below the earth into a “flash tank” on the surface.

The flash tank is at a much lower temperature, causing the fluid to quickly “flash” into steam. The steam produced powers the turbines. The steam is cooled and condenses into water, where it is pumped back into the ground through the injection well.”

Flash Steam geothermal

Closed loop systems

Closed

Closed loop system geothermal power

Open loop systems

Open

Open Loop Systems geothermal power

Binary cycle power plant

https://www.argusventure.com/energy

Binary cycle geothermal power plant

More animations

https://www.saveonenergy.com/how-geothermal-energy-works/

https://www.saveonenergy.com/how-geothermal-energy-works/

What is the potential for geothermal energy use in the USA?

Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS)

energy renewable geothermal resource USA

.

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Tidal power

Content objective:

What are we learning? Why are we learning this?

content, procedures, skills

Vocabulary objective

Tier II: High frequency words used across content areas. Key to understanding directions, understanding relationships, and for making inferences.

Tier III: Low frequency, domain specific terms

Building on what we already know

What vocabulary & concepts were learned in earlier grades?
Make connections to prior lessons from this year.
This is where we start building from.

Ocean tides are caused by tidal forces.

What are “tides”?

Types of tidal power

Tidal barrages -most efficient.

A dam that utilizes the potential energy generated by the change in height between high and low tides. This energy turns a turbine or compresses air, which generates electricity.

Tidal power generation

image from technologystudent.com/images5/tidal1.gif

Tidal fences – turbines that operate like giant turnstiles

mechanical energy of tidal currents used to turn turbines. These are connected to a generator that produces electricity

tidal fences GIF

Tidal turbines – similar to wind turbines but these are under water.

mechanical energy of tidal currents used to turn turbines. These are connected to a generator that produces electricity

tidal turbines

Many other designs are possible, for instance:

Fluid Pumping Apparatuses Powered By Waves Or Flowing Currents

 

Great animations

We have identified six main types of Tidal Energy Convertors (TEC):

 

Advantages of tidal power

Environmentally friendly

Relatively small amount of space

Ocean currents generate relatively more energy than air currents because ocean water is 832 times more dense than air and therefore applies greater force on the turbines.

Disadvantages of tidal power

high construction costs

Amount of energy is not constant per hour, or even per week

requires a suitable site, where tidal streams are consistently strong.

Must be capable of withstanding strong tides and storms, and can be expensive to maintain and repair

Related topics

Why Is There a Tidal Bulge Opposite the Moon?

Hydroelectric power

Content objective:

What are we learning? Why are we learning this?

content, procedures, skills

Vocabulary objective

Tier II: High frequency words used across content areas. Key to understanding directions, understanding relationships, and for making inferences.

Tier III: Low frequency, domain specific terms

Building on what we already know

What vocabulary & concepts were learned in earlier grades?
Make connections to prior lessons from this year.
This is where we start building from.

Hydroelectric power

THIS IS AN OUTLINE FOR WHAT WILL BECOME A STUDENT RESOURCE

Water flowing downstream has PE (gravitational potential energy.)

As the water falls, it loses height, and thus loses PE, but it gains speed, and thus gains KE (kinetic energy.)

This KE can be transformed into rotational motion.

Breastshot water wheel

This rotational motion can then spin an axle

That axle can rotate wires inside a magnet, or vice-versa.

AC generator Wire through magnet

That produces an electrical current inside the wires.

Thus we have converted the energy of falling water into electrical energy,

How dams produce electric energy

tba

Hydropower generator GIF

For more details see http://www.wvic.com/content/how_hydropower_works.cfm

How much hydroelectric power are we using?

Hydroelectric power stations in the United States are currently the largest renewable source of energy, but the second for nominal capacity (behind Wind power in the United States).

Hydroelectric power produced 35% of the total renewable electricity in the U.S. in 2015, and 6.1% of the total U.S. electricity.

The United States was the 4th largest producer of hydroelectric power in the world in 2008 after China, Canada and Brazil. Produced hydroelectricity was 282 TWh (2008). It was 8.6% of the world’s total hydropower.

Hydroelectric stations exist in at least 34 US states. The largest concentration of hydroelectric generation in the US is in the Columbia River basin, which in 2012 was the source of 44% of the nation’s hydroelectricity. Hydroelectricity projects such as Hoover Dam, Grand Coulee Dam, and the Tennessee Valley Authority have become iconic large construction projects.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydroelectric_power_in_the_United_States

Why is hydroelectric power limited?

  • the best places for it have long been exploited

  • it restricts river navigation

  • impoundment floods lands with alternative uses

Is hydroelectric power a form of perpetual energy?

If you live for less than a hundred years, it might seem that way! We never out! But no, it won’t last forever. See this answer from Physics.stackexchange.com – Energy-of-a-waterfall

Most waterfalls will continue flowing, at least intermittently, for hundreds or thousands of years and are powered by the Sun which is expected to continue radiating energy to drive this system for much much longer.

Each waterfall can therefore supply a very large amount of energy. However only at a very limited rate – i.e. power output is limited by the flow rate of the river that feeds the fall.

The reasons that this is not infinite include

limited power output
limited duration
rivers erode their beds and change their routes
the Earth has a limited lifetime
the Sun has a limited lifetime
A more conventional way to extract power from the flow of water is of course turbines built into dams on rivers.

Resources

Tsongas Industrial History Center

Power to Production is an interdisciplinary program designed to help students
achieve state and national standards in History/Social Science, Science and
Technology, and Mathematics. Tsongas Industrial History Center, U. Mass Lowell.

 

Wind power

Content objective:

What are we learning? Why are we learning this?

content, procedures, skills

Vocabulary objective

Tier II: High frequency words used across content areas. Key to understanding directions, understanding relationships, and for making inferences.

Tier III: Low frequency, domain specific terms

Building on what we already know

What vocabulary & concepts were learned in earlier grades?
Make connections to prior lessons from this year.
This is where we start building from.

Wind energy (or wind power) refers to the process of creating electricity using the wind, or air flows that occur naturally in the earth’s atmosphere. Modern wind turbines are used to capture kinetic energy from the wind and generate electricity.

There are three main types of wind energy:

Utility-scale wind: Wind turbines that range in size from 100 kilowatts to several megawatts, where the electricity is delivered to the power grid and distributed to the end user by electric utilities or power system operators.

Distributed or “small” wind: Single small wind turbines below 100 kilowatts that are used to directly power a home, farm or small business and are not connected to the grid.

Offshore wind: Wind turbines that are erected in large bodies of water, usually on the continental shelf. Offshore wind turbines are larger than land-based turbines and can generate more power.

from: American Wind Energy Association

resources

Wind Turbines: TeacherGeek

—–

regional wind systems

Power = rate that energy is transformed from one form to another.

There are two basic types of wind turbines:

Horizontal-axis turbines

Vertical-axis turbines

also see https://blog.arcadiapower.com/types-of-wind-turbines-being-used-today/

Benchmarks, American Association for the Advancement of Science

In the 1700s, most manufacturing was still done in homes or small shops, using small, handmade machines that were powered by muscle, wind, or moving water. 10J/E1** (BSL)

In the 1800s, new machinery and steam engines to drive them made it possible to manufacture goods in factories, using fuels as a source of energy. In the factory system, workers, materials, and energy could be brought together efficiently. 10J/M1*

Solar power

Content objective:

What are we learning? Why are we learning this?

content, procedures, skills

Vocabulary objective

Tier II: High frequency words used across content areas. Key to understanding directions, understanding relationships, and for making inferences.

Tier III: Low frequency, domain specific terms

Building on what we already know

What vocabulary & concepts were learned in earlier grades?
Make connections to prior lessons from this year.
This is where we start building from.

The sun produces vast amounts of power

Radiation travels out in all directions from its source. Unlike conduction and convection,which need material to travel through, radiant energy can travel through the vacuum of space. Solar energy reaches Earth by radiation.

How much heat energy is in sunlight? View this clip from “James May’s Big Ideas.”

This parabolic mirror reflects infrared, visible and UV light energy from the sun, onto a focal point, producing about 1000 watts of power/square meter.

James May's Big Ideas Melt Steel Solar

Types of solar power

Photovoltaic Systems – produce electricity directly from sunlight.

Solar Hot Water – Heating water with solar energy.

Solar Electricity – Using the sun’s heat to produce electricity.

Passive Solar Heating and Daylighting – Using solar energy to heat and light buildings.

Solar Process Space Heating and Cooling – Industrial and commercial uses of the sun’s heat.

https://www.renewableenergyworld.com/solar-energy/tech.html

tba

Oil Power

Content objective:

What are we learning? Why are we learning this?

content, procedures, skills

Vocabulary objective

Tier II: High frequency words used across content areas. Key to understanding directions, understanding relationships, and for making inferences.

Tier III: Low frequency, domain specific terms

Building on what we already know

What vocabulary & concepts were learned in earlier grades?
Make connections to prior lessons from this year.
This is where we start building from.

What’s the difference between petroleum and oil?

“Oil” is a general name for any kind of molecule which is

nonpolar

that just means that its electrons are evenly distributed

PHET Polar molecules app

liquid at room temperature

of course, it could become solid if cooled, or evaporate if heated

Molecule has one end which is hydrophobic and another end which is lipophilic

The hydrophobic end likes to stick to water molecules. But hates sticking to oils.

The lipophilic end likes to stick to oil molecules, but hates sticking to water,

hydrophobic hydrophilic

Made with many C and H atoms

Oils are usually flammable. Here we see oils in an orange skin interacting with a candle.

flammable orange oil

 

So Petroleum is?

It is a mix of naturally forming oils, which we drill from the Earth, and use in a variety of ways.

We can burn it to generate electricity, or we can use it to make plastics, asphalt, tar, etc.

Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth’s surface.

 

How was petroleum (“oil”) formed?

 

oil Natural Gas Formation_Primary-L

Here’s a cool video on petroleum (“oil”) and gas formation

Oil formation GIF Kerogen

Oil and gas formation, EarthScience WesternAustralia

So what is oil really made of?

While you are free to skip this section, it is pretty cool to see what oil is really made of. It is a bunch of different organic molecules.

Petroleum is made of thousands of different molecules.  Some of them exist as gases, others as liquids, and others as a solid.

The gas molecules include heavy hydrocarbons like pentane, hexane, and heptane.

pentane butane hexane

The liquid molecules include various forms of alkanes (paraffins),

alkanes methane ethane propane butane

cycloalkanes (naphthenes,)

Cyclobutane buckled 3D balls

Ball-and-stick model of cyclobutane, Wikimedia

asphaltenes – these are a complex mix of beautiful organic molecules.

Here we see two versions of the same molecule. This first view shows the outline, showin connections between one atom and the next.

a

Asphaltene A

This next view is the exact same molecule, except now showing the shape more realistically (each atom is roughly sphere-shaped.)

Asphaltene B

 

These two images are from Murray R. Gray,  What are asphaltenes in petroleum, oil sands, and heavy oil? sites.ualberta.ca/~gray/ Links%20&%20Docs/ Asphaltenes %20web%20page. pdf

How do take this complex mess, and get the parts that we want?

Fractional distillation

fractional distillation of oil

and then cracking the hydrocarbons

here is one part of the cracking process

Cracking into ethane into ethene and H2

 

How is the energy in oil turned into electrical power?

We can burn oil to release heat, and use that heat to create electrical power.

Burning oil is a chemical reaction called combustion.

In physics, power has a very specific meaning. It is the rate that energy is transformed from one form into another form.

 

Smog – a bad side effect of burning oil and coal

While a small portion of the SO2 and NOX that cause acid rain is from natural sources such as volcanoes, most of it comes from the burning of fossil fuels.

The major sources of SO2 and NOX in the atmosphere are:

  • Burning of fossil fuels to generate electricity.  Two thirds of SO2 and one fourth of NOX in the atmosphere come from electric power generators.

  • Vehicles and heavy equipment.

  • Manufacturing, oil refineries and other industries.

Winds can blow SO2 and NOX over long distances and across borders.

.

Learning Standards

Massachusetts History and Social Science Curriculum Framework

Grade 6: HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY Interpret geographic information from a graph or chart and construct a graph or chart that conveys geographic information (e.g., about rainfall, temperature, or population size data)

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION AND SOCIAL AND POLITICAL CHANGE IN EUROPE, 1800–1914 WHII.6 Summarize the social and economic impact of the Industrial Revolution… population and urban growth

Benchmarks, American Association for the Advancement of Science

In the 1700s, most manufacturing was still done in homes or small shops, using small, handmade machines that were powered by muscle, wind, or moving water. 10J/E1** (BSL)

In the 1800s, new machinery and steam engines to drive them made it possible to manufacture goods in factories, using fuels as a source of energy. In the factory system, workers, materials, and energy could be brought together efficiently. 10J/M1*

The invention of the steam engine was at the center of the Industrial Revolution. It converted the chemical energy stored in wood and coal into motion energy. The steam engine was widely used to solve the urgent problem of pumping water out of coal mines. As improved by James Watt, Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer, it was soon used to move coal; drive manufacturing machinery; and power locomotives, ships, and even the first automobiles. 10J/M2*

The Industrial Revolution developed in Great Britain because that country made practical use of science, had access by sea to world resources and markets, and had people who were willing to work in factories. 10J/H1*

The Industrial Revolution increased the productivity of each worker, but it also increased child labor and unhealthy working conditions, and it gradually destroyed the craft tradition. The economic imbalances of the Industrial Revolution led to a growing conflict between factory owners and workers and contributed to the main political ideologies of the 20th century. 10J/H2

Today, changes in technology continue to affect patterns of work and bring with them economic and social consequences. 10J/H3*

 

Coal power

Content objective:

What are we learning? Why are we learning this?

content, procedures, skills

Vocabulary objective

Tier II: High frequency words used across content areas. Key to understanding directions, understanding relationships, and for making inferences.

Tier III: Low frequency, domain specific terms

Building on what we already know

What vocabulary & concepts were learned in earlier grades?
Make connections to prior lessons from this year.
This is where we start building from.

How was coal formed?

coalFormation-XL

Types of coal

Lignite

sub-bituminous coal

bituminous coal

anthracite coal

Types of coal Lignite bituminous Anthracite USA

From High School Coal Study Guide, U.S. Dept. of Energy, http://www.energy.gov,

So what is coal really made of?

While you are free to skip this section, it is pretty cool to see what coal is really made of. It is a bunch of different organic molecules.

Recall that coal was made from piles of ancient plants.  Plants are made of cellulose, and that is just made from a bunch of linked sugar molecules.

Check this out – this scar looking cellulose molecule is really just a bunch of sugars linked up!

So under years of heat and pressure, all these cellulose molecules break down and reconnect into other shapes.

As such, coal has way more different shaped molecules than oil.

Think of coal as a bunch of five-sided and six-sided rings of carbon, often hooked together with an O (oxygen) atom.

cellulose cyclic glucose turned to coal

Energy Sources and the Environment

All sorts of shapes are possible; there are probably millions of them. Here is another example.

coal molecule structure Wikipedia

From Wikimedia, Struktura chemiczna węgla kamiennego

How is the energy in coal turned into electrical power?

Burn coal to release heat, and use that heat to create electrical power.

Burning oil is a chemical reaction called combustion.

In physics, power has a very specific meaning. It is the rate that energy is transformed from one form into another form.

_________________________________________________________

Coal fired power station

Coal is pulverized (D)

and burnt in a furnace (C).

The heat energy released is used to heat water into super hot steam which is then used to turn turbines (B).

The turbines drive the generators (A) which produce electricity.

The steam is then condensed and recycled.

The chimney labeled “F”, known as a condensing tower, releases water vapour and is part of the recycling of steam.

The chimney labeled “G” is attached to the furnace and releases carbon dioxide and ash.

Text and GIF above from http://www.dynamicscience. com.au

___________________________________________

Here is another animation (source unknown, found at gifer. com

Coal fired power station Another

____________________________________________

2000px-Coal_fired_power_plant_diagram.svg

Turning coal into natural gas

Burning coal creates a lot of air pollution. Coal gasification turns it into a kind of natural gas that burns more cleanly. Read more: Scienceclarified.com Real life chemistry

Smog – a bad side effect of burning coal

Huge amounts of SO2 get into the atmosphere from power plants burning sulfur-containing coal or oil.

Smog is air pollution that reduces visibility. The term was first used in the early 1900s to describe a mix of smoke and fog. The smoke usually came from burning coal. Smog was common in industrial areas, and remains a familiar sight in cities today.

Today, most of the smog we see is photochemical smog. Photochemical smog is produced when sunlight reacts with nitrogen oxides and at least one volatile organic compound (VOC) in the atmosphere.

Nitrogen oxides come from car exhaust, coal power plants, and factory emissions.

The Great Smog of London, or Great Smog of 1952

Smog London historical

Image found at makeagif

How we partially ended smog in the modern world with EPA regulations.

Smog before and after the EPA

Human-caused atmospheric changes

Coal Ash Is More Radioactive Than Nuclear Waste

How elections are impacted by a 100 million year old coastline

Learning Standards

Massachusetts History and Social Science Curriculum Framework

Grade 6: HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY Interpret geographic information from a graph or chart and construct a graph or chart that conveys geographic information (e.g., about rainfall, temperature, or population size data)

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION AND SOCIAL AND POLITICAL CHANGE IN EUROPE, 1800–1914 WHII.6 Summarize the social and economic impact of the Industrial Revolution… population and urban growth

Benchmarks, American Association for the Advancement of Science

In the 1700s, most manufacturing was still done in homes or small shops, using small, handmade machines that were powered by muscle, wind, or moving water. 10J/E1** (BSL)

In the 1800s, new machinery and steam engines to drive them made it possible to manufacture goods in factories, using fuels as a source of energy. In the factory system, workers, materials, and energy could be brought together efficiently. 10J/M1*

The invention of the steam engine was at the center of the Industrial Revolution. It converted the chemical energy stored in wood and coal into motion energy. The steam engine was widely used to solve the urgent problem of pumping water out of coal mines. As improved by James Watt, Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer, it was soon used to move coal; drive manufacturing machinery; and power locomotives, ships, and even the first automobiles. 10J/M2*

The Industrial Revolution developed in Great Britain because that country made practical use of science, had access by sea to world resources and markets, and had people who were willing to work in factories. 10J/H1*

The Industrial Revolution increased the productivity of each worker, but it also increased child labor and unhealthy working conditions, and it gradually destroyed the craft tradition. The economic imbalances of the Industrial Revolution led to a growing conflict between factory owners and workers and contributed to the main political ideologies of the 20th century. 10J/H2

Today, changes in technology continue to affect patterns of work and bring with them economic and social consequences. 10J/H3*