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# Category Archives: Teaching

## Geodesy

### Geodesy combines applied mathematics and earth sciences to measure and represent the Earth (or any planet.)

NOAA National Geodetic Survey, from a PPT by Hawaii Geographic Information Coordinating Council

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from the  National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Ocean Service Education page on Geodesy:

### As positioning and navigation have become fundamental to the functions of society, geodesy has become increasingly important.

https://www.ngs.noaa.gov/INFO/WhatWeDo.shtml

https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/geodesy.html

Precise Geodetic Infrastructure: National Requirements for a Shared Resource (2010) – Geodesy for the Benefit of Society

## Seismic waves

### P waves

Earth Science, Tarbuck & Lutgens, Chapter 8

### S waves

Earth Science, Tarbuck & Lutgens, Chapter 8

### Surface waves

Tarbuck & Lutgens

### Rayleigh surface waves

“The Rayleigh surface waves are the waves that cause the most damage during an earthquake. They travel with velocities slower than S waves, and arrive later, but with much greater amplitudes. These are also the waves that are most easily felt during an earthquake and involve both up-down and side-to-side motion.”

## How do we measure motions of the Earth?

### What is a seismograph?

Intro to be written

Earth Science, Tarbuck & Lutgens, Chapter 8

### This is a seismograph record.

Earth Science, Tarbuck & Lutgens, Chapter 8

## Cleavage

### Mica has 1d cleavage

Lumen Geology, Identify and classify common rock forming minerals.

## Fracture

### Chrysotile has splintery fracture.

Quartz has conchodial fracture

## Further examples

GG101 Lab Minerals

## Terminology

### Fibrous – Fracture surface shows fibres or splinters.

This section from

Geololgy, Rocks and Minerals, Univ. of Auckland

## What are laws of nature?

### This idea is held by some religious groups and some schools of philosophy. It isn’t necessarily related to religion; there are many non-religious people who believe in the necessary existence of natural law.

image from commons.wikimedia.org

## What factors control the height of a mountain?

### Don’t believe me? Even rock has a maximum amount of strength. Here is a GIF of what happens to solid rock when you put enough pressure on it! 🙂

Source: Unconfined compressive strength test of rock

Roy Blitz

## What else makes mountains rise or grow?

### This causes delamination to occur. Depending on the amount of material removed, the rate of new material added, and erosion, scenarios with net increases or decreases in elevation are possible after a delamination event. This sets another limit on how thick a crustal root can get (and thus how high a mountain range grow on the long term).

Source, Reddit comment

## Why are there some special spots on Earth where mountains can grow twice as high?

### So the Himalayas have double the thickness of the average continental plate, thus double the mountain height that would be considered “normal”.

George W Hatcher, Planetary Scientist, Aerospace Engineer

## References

How high can a mountain possibly get? Earth Science StackExchange

How High can a mountain get? 2 Earth Science Stack Exchange

How tall can a mountain become on Earth? Quora

What is the theoretical limit to how tall mountains can get on Earth? Reddit

Glacial Buzz Saw Hypothesis: New Scientist article

## Examples with math details

Why are some moons spherical while others are shaped like potatoes? Quarks & Coffee

How High Can Mountains Be? Talking Physics

How High Could A Mountain Be? Physics World hk-phy.org

How tall can I make a column of stone? Rhett Allain, Wired magazine columnist

### Related lab ideas

Play Doh Modeling Folds: Block Diagrams and Structure Contours

Play-Doh Modeling Folds: Block Diagrams and Structure Contours

Play Doh Introduction to Igneous Intrusions

Play Doh Unconformities

## Maslow’s hierarchy of needs – claims and reality

### Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow. His first discussion of this idea was in his 1943 paper “A Theory of Human Motivation” in Psychological Review. It was developed further in his 1954 book Motivation and Personality.

Created by FireflySixtySeven, CC BY-SA 4.0, Wikimedia

### How his ideas were changed, incorrectly claimed as scientifically proven, and then became the basis of profitable seminars in business and education, is the subject of these papers:

Who Built Maslow’s Pyramid? A History of the Creation of Management Studies’ Most Famous Symbol and Its Implications for Management Education, by Todd Bridgman, Stephen Cummings and John Ballard, Academy of Management Learning & EducationVol. 18, No. 1, 3/1/2019
https://journals.aom.org/doi/10.5465/amle.2017.0351

“Who Created Maslow’s Iconic Pyramid?” by Scott Barry Kaufman Scientific American, 4/23/2019
https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/beautiful-minds/who-created-maslows-iconic-pyramid/

## State of the theory today

### Abraham Maslow and the pyramid that beguiled business, William Kremer and Claudia Hammond, BBC World Service 9/1/2013https://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-23902918

Maslow’s Hierarchy: Separating Fact From Fiction

## Science catalog & supplier list

American Surplus and Supplies (Sciplus)
https://www.sciplus.com/

Arbor Scientific
https://www.arborsci.com/

Carolina
https://www.carolina.com/

Daydream Education (great science posters)
https://www.daydreameducation.com/

Delta Education (K-8)
https://www.deltaeducation.com/

Edmund Optics
https://www.edmundoptics.com/

Educational Innovations (Teachersource)
https://www.teachersource.com/

Fisher Scientific
https://www.fishersci.com/

Flinn Scientific
https://www.flinnsci.com/

Frey Scientific & CPO Science
http://www.freyscientific.com/

Hand2mind (K-8)
https://www.hand2mind.com/

Lab-aids
https://store.lab-aids.com/

Kelvin Educational
http://kelvin.com/

NASCO (STEM, STEAM products)
https://www.enasco.com/c/Education-Supplies/Steam

Pittsco
https://www.pitsco.com/

School Speciality
https://www.schoolspecialty.com/?param=ssi

STEMfinity (technology, engineering, robotics)
https://www.stemfinity.com/

ThermoFisher Scientific (Massachusetts)
https://www.thermofisher.com/us/en/home/order.html

Trend Enterprises posters
https://www.trendenterprises.com/home.cfm

Vernier
https://www.vernier.com/

Wards’s Science / SK Science Kit & Boreal Laboratories
https://www.wardsci.com/

## Easy labs and manipulatives

TBA

### Biology

Modeling DNA with Legos

Osmosis & Diffusion labs

Teaching protein translation

### Chemistry

Precipitates: Coca Cola and milk

Creating the periodic table

Element Data Cards Lab instructions

Element Data Cards the cards themselves

Chemistry labs

Electrochemistry: Two potato clock

Organic molecule models

TBA

TBA

### Physics

CPO Kinematics labs

Reaction time lab

Friction lab

Gravity and tides: Why Is There a Tidal Bulge Opposite the Moon?

Inertial mass and gravitational mass lab

Magnetism labs

Magnetism: Lenz’s law demo

Measuring data with smartphone apps

### Engineering/Simple machines

Catapult and Trebuchet build project

Hovercraft build project

Mousetrap racers

### General science

Teaching science with augmented reality

________________

## Photosynthesis GIFs and interactives

### What are they used for? The plants use them as building blocks. You can see “hemicellulose,” basically a carb, being linked together with other interesting looks carbs.  They keep linking until they build the structure of a leaf, a stem, or as you can see here, a branch.

From Direct evidence for α ether linkage between lignin and carbohydrates in wood cell walls, Hiroshi Nishimura et al, Scientific Reports volume 8, Article number: 6538 (2018)

Then

### Here’s an animation of how this works, as a formula:

from the Amoeba sisters

## Hands-on manipulatives/lab

### This active simulation makes it easier to remember both processes!

Modeling Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

Modelling Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration PDF handout

Reading on related topic, giant sequoia tree, PDF packet

## How do viruses spread? Airborne vs non-airborne

### A healthy person might touch one of those surfaces, and then touch their face, which then lets those virus particles get in to your airway. That’s a problem, but we can avoid danger: Be careful of what you touch and wash your hands!

How does the likelihood of death from any common cause compare to the likelihood of death from something that spreads exponentially? The important difference is that for any other cause of death, that cause is (a) usually not transmissible, and (b) the rate of death stays (more or less) the same over time.

But for deaths caused by a virus the situation is different – (c) it is transmissible from one person to another, and (d) the number of people infected grows exponentially over time.

Animation: Global Deaths Due to Various Causes and COVID-19

Methodology and sources for the animation

### But read on – with this novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) there is a bit more danger:

Image from paper by Jianjian Wei and Yuguo Li. Airborne spread of infectious agents in the indoor environment

### researchers reported earlier this year in The New England Journal of Medicine that SARS-CoV-2 can float in aerosol droplets—less than 5 microns across—for up to 3 hours, and remain infectious

You may be able to spread coronavirus just by breathing, new report finds, Science, AAAS, Robert F. Service, 4/2/2020

## References

Flight of the aerosol, Ian M Mackay et al. Virology Down Under, 2/9/2020