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Scratch

Scratch is a programming language that makes it easy to create your own interactive stories, games, and animations – and share your creations with others on the web.

Scratch is designed especially for ages 8 to 16, but is used by people of all ages. Millions of people are creating Scratch projects in a wide variety of settings, including homes, schools, museums, libraries, and community centers.

Scratch is used in more than 150 different countries and available in more than 40 languages.

Students are learning with Scratch at all levels (from elementary school to college) and across disciplines (such as math, computer science, language arts, social studies)

scratch-script-coding-example

Scratch enters the TIOBE index for the 20 most used computer programming languages.

+The Scratch programming language from MIT Media Lab has entered the TIOBE index top 20. Scratch is a language to learn programming. It is especially used at schools and is now getting really popular. The Scratch repository at MIT labs contains 20 million different Scratch projects and more than half a million new users each month.”

Scratch lessons

1. Getting started with Scratch. Getting an account. 3/27/19

2. First lesson in the Scratch Editor – Start moving, add a sound, start a dance, again & again, Saying something, starting with the Green Flag, Changing Color, Key Press, etc. 3/27/19.

3. Next lesson in the Scratch Editor – Look for the tutorial menu on the right hand side. If you don’t see it, then click the ‘Tips’ button in the upper left menu.

Scratch Menu Tips

Click “All Tips” and a set of tutorials will appear.

Scratch Tutorial Menu

Choose “Animate your name”, then “Make it Fly”.  As you complete each tutorial, show me your work so you can get credit.

Animate your name:
Choose the First Letter
Add Color Effects
Add a Sound
Add a Backdrop
Add Your Next Letter
Make It Spin
Finish Your Name
Share Your Project

Make It Fly:
Choose a Character
Prepare to Fly
Add Scenery
Make It Move
Switch Looks
Paint the Sky
Make It Interactive
Add Things in the Sky
Customize and Enhance
Share Y

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4. More tutorials in the Scratch Editor – Click “Make Music” – Choose musical instruments, add sounds, and press keys to play music. Then “Race to the Finish”, make a game where two characters race each other. As you complete each tutorial, show me your work so you can get credit.

Make Music: Pick a Drum, Play the Drum, Make a Rhythm. Make It Repeat. Animate the Drum, Play an Instrument, Make a Melody, Add a Chord. Add Vocals, Play Random Notes, Record Sounds

Race To The Finish: Choose a Backdrop, Start Moving, Move When You Press a Key, Draw a Finish Line, If You Reach the Finish Line, Go to the Starting Point, Add Another Sprite to Race, Personalize Your Game.

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5th lesson. From “Adventures in Coding”, Holland & Minnick. Pages 10-23.

Scratch.mit.edu Editor

Part I: Defining the Stage; Block palette; Scripts pane; Sprite pane.

Move (10) Steps – block. [Turn] block. Connecting blocks.  Duplicating blocks.

Looping movements: [Forever] block. The [Stop] sign.

Starting with the Green Flag.  “Bouncing off the walls” [If on edge, bounce]

Choosing sprite from the Library icon. Animating your new sprite.

Part II: Handling collisions on the dance floor.  using the [If….Then] block. Putting this block inside the [Forever] block.

Part III: Slowing it down.  Using the [Wait] block.

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6th lesson. “Adventures in Coding”, Holland & Minnick. Pages 24-38.

Part I: Exploring the Scratch Project Editor. Aspects of the Toolbar. File menu. Edit menu. Small Stage layout. Turbo option.  Using the [Duplicate] icons.  Using the [Grow] and [Shrink] tools. The [Block Help] tool. Finding the [My Stuff] area. Finding your [Profile] page.

The Stage: Green flag, Stop sign. Stage coordinates. The backdrop pane. Choosing a new backdrop from the library.
The Sprite Pane; The Sprite Info pane. The Scripts area.  The Block palette. The Costume pane. The Sound pane.

Scratch tutorials II

Creating Backdrops and Sprites in Scratch

Introduction to Blocks in Scratch

Creating Your First Script in Scratch

Working With Motion, Looks and Sound in Scratch

Working With Control, Sensing and Operators in Scratch

Using Variables and Data in Scratch

Make Your Scratch Animations More Reactive With Events

Bring Your Scratch Projects to Life With Animated Costumes and Backdrops

Make Your Scratch Code More Efficient With Custom Blocks

Sharing Your Work in Scratch

 

Tools

The Scratch Editor

Scratch 2 Offline Editor: You can install the Scratch 2.0 editor to work on projects without an internet connection

What can students learn from Scratch? By Matt Doyle Brit Pips

Students will develop a range of coding and problem-solving skills that will help them when they later move onto real-world programming. These include:

Manipulating variables — chunks of computer memory — to store and retrieve data.

Using operators to manipulate data. These include arithmetic operators (plus, minus, multiply, divide), as well as comparison operators (less than, equal to, greater than), logic operators (and, or, not), the concatenation operator (for joining strings together), and trigonometry (sine, cosine, tangent and so on).

Understanding control flow: the way that computers move through each step in a program.

Altering control flow with conditional statements and loops.

Creating reusable chunks of code, known in Scratch as custom blocks. (In programming-speak they’re known as procedures or subroutines.)

Event handling: writing code that responds to events, such as key presses and mouse clicks.

Detecting and responding to real-world input, including the mouse position, the loudness of the sounds picked up by the computer’s microphone, and even movement picked up by the webcam!

Simple multimedia programming, including drawing, animation and sound.

Lessons

0. Learning With Scratch

On the right side of the screen follow the tutorial “Getting Started with Scratch”

Click ‘Start Moving’ – Drag a move block into the Scripts area. Watch carefully, the animated tutorial shows you how to drag a command block from the menu into the Script area. On the bottom of this tutorial area, look for the next step (Now, add a sound) Continue forth through the entire tutorial.

Sprites

Clones

Variables

Bubblesort

Bubblesort: How to alphabetize your bookshelf

http://ed.ted.com/lessons/what-s-the-fastest-way-to-alphabetize-your-bookshelf-chand-john

http://www.digitaltrends.com/cool-tech/book-sorting-algorithm/

External resources

Lessons: Learning Scratch at code.tutsplus.com

MATH Scratch for Every Subject: Math

User guide: getting started with Scratch

Video tutorials

15 Scratch lessons with accompanying video tutorials: Scratch ED Resources (Harvard)

Getting Started With Scratch

Scratch Cards: getting started with coding

Writing code with custom blocks

Scratch Workshop: Introduction to Programming

An Introduction to Programming with Scratch Ronald Bourret

Building games

http://scratched.gse.harvard.edu/resources/how-build-simple-pac-man-game

Learning Standards

2016 Massachusetts Digital Literacy and Computer Science (DLCS) Curriculum Framework

6-8.CT.c.1 Demonstrate that numbers can be represented in different number systems (e.g., binary, octal, and hexadecimal) and text can be represented in different ways such as American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII).

4. Computational Thinking (CT) is a problem solving process that requires people to think in new ways to enable effective use of computing to solve problems and create solutions. The capacity of computers to rapidly and precisely execute programs makes new ways of designing, creating, and problem solving possible. Characterized by:
• analyzing, modeling, and abstracting ideas and problems so people and computers can work with them;
• designing solutions and algorithms to manipulate these abstract representations (including data structures); and
• identifying and executing solutions (e.g., via programming).

CSTA (Computer Science Teachers Association) K–12 Computer Science Standards

Computational Thinking: (CT) The student will be able to:

1. Use the basic steps in algorithmic problem solving to design solutions (e.g., problem statement and exploration, examination of sample instances, design, implementing a solution, testing, evaluation).

2. Describe the process of parallelization as it relates to problem solving.

3. Define an algorithm as a sequence of instructions that can be processed by a computer.

4. Evaluate ways that different algorithms may be used to solve the same problem.

5. Act out searching and sorting algorithms.

6. Describe and analyze a sequence of instructions being followed (e.g., describe a character’s behavior in a video game as driven by rules and algorithms).

7. Represent data in a variety of ways including text, sounds, pictures, and numbers.

Computers & Communications Devices (CD)

The student will be able to:

1. Recognize that computers are devices that execute programs.

2. Identify a variety of electronic devices that contain computational processors.

3. Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between hardware and software.

4. Use developmentally appropriate, accurate terminology when communicating about technology.

5. Apply strategies for identifying and solving routine hardware problems that occur during everyday computer use.

6. Describe the major components and functions of computer systems and networks.

7. Describe what distinguishes humans from machines focusing on human intelligence versus machine intelligence and ways we can communicate.

8. Describe ways in which computers use models of intelligent behavior (e.g., robot motion, speech and language understanding, and computer vision).

Additional links

Scratch Teacher Account FAQ

Scratch – resetting the position of sprites after stopping a program, and CONFIGURE SPRITE STARTUP CONDITIONS

Short sound clips (MP3s)

These can be downloaded to your PC, and then uploaded into Scratch for use in programs.

Useful as text examples of synchronizing animated lips to speech

Free Information Society: Historical speech clips

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