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Earth Science

The Massachusetts Board of Elementary and Secondary Education has adopted revised science standards. They are based on the Next Generation Science Standards, which itself is based on A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas (2012), from the National Research Council of the National Academies.

High school students are expected to have learned certain math skills by the end of grade 8; they will use these math skills in this course. Additional math skills are introduced throughout the year.

Also see Benchmarks: American Association for the Advancement of Science.  The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American, non-profit organization promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, and supporting education and outreach for the betterment of all humanity.  Their pioneering studies – Science for All Americans, and Benchmarks – have been used to reform science education, including the National Research Council’s A Framework for K-12 Science Education (2012) and the Next Generation Science Standards.

Earth Science Animations

Why study Earth Science?

The earth sciences include studies of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and the relations among them and with the biosphere. Study of the earth sciences directly addresses several issues of great societal concern, including but not limited to natural disasters such as devastating hurricanes, and the global effects of a changing climate.

The earth sciences are important because they are a window into other sciences, and because they help students develop critical thinking skills. In addition, the earth sciences connect the world of science with all students’ daily experiences.

The weather is a never-ending “science experiment” in progress outside classroom windows. Teachers with sound training in the earth science basics have endlessly interesting and relevant material to draw upon that connects science with the students’ past experiences and daily lives.

Earth science helps students see how all of the sciences are related because to study the Earth, scientists and students must use the knowledge and techniques of several disciplines, including but not limited to physics, chemistry, mathematics, and computer science. Learning about the Earth helps students realize that their world is made of interconnected, dynamic systems.

In addition, the earth sciences, and especially weather, connect science with the world students come to know through the news media, especially television. Surveys over the past several years have shown that television is the primary source of news for the majority of Americans. With the exception of weather, most of the science that television news presents is about health and medicine. In fact, television weathercasters are likely to be the only representatives of science students and their parents regularly see….

The value of earth science classes goes beyond the intellectual benefits. Over the years, various reports have testified to the life-saving value of earth science education. One of the most dramatic of these came from the 26 December 2004 tsunami that devastated coastal areas around the Indian Ocean, killing as many as 300,000 people. A British schoolgirl, who had studied tsunamis in school, recognized precursors of the tsunami that was about to hit the beach in Thailand she was visiting. The schoolgirl persuaded her mother to shout a warning, which is credited with saving 100 people on the beach.

In the United States, students in earth science classes learn how to react when endangered by tornadoes, hurricanes, floods, lightning, and other hazards. The devastating hurricanes of 2005 showed that more Americans still need to better understand the potential effects of dangerous weather. This education could begin in school. As an example of the benefits of such education, two scientists from the National Severe Storms Laboratory, writing in the June 2002 issue of the journal Weather and Forecasting, credit school safety lessons with the absence of anyone between the ages 5 and 23 among the 36 people killed by the 3 May 1999 Oklahoma City tornado.

Of course, the benefits of earth science education go far beyond learning how to cope with natural disasters. Even if students never use what they learn in earth science classes to save their lives or the lives of others, they will benefit from learning the critical thinking skills associated with scientific endeavors and learning more about how the world works. Students who study the earth sciences will better understand the value of the Earth’s resources, how its components are related, and the need to care for the Earth. Men and women who possess a basic understanding of the Earth will be able to participate as informed citizens in policy debates, such as about climate change. Society will be the ultimate beneficiary as its citizens become more aware of the science that explains weather, earth’s water, the oceans, and the Earth itself.

– From Earth Science Education, Adopted by American Meteorological Society Council, 29 January 2006. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 87

New Hampshire Geologic Survey publications
Bulletins with maps, maps, subject reports and Fact Sheets. Publications can be found using one of three methods below:
NH Geological Survey Publiations


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