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Earth Science


The Massachusetts Board of Elementary and Secondary Education has adopted revised science standards. They are based on the Next Generation Science Standards, which itself is based on A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas (2012), from the National Research Council of the National Academies.

Learning Standards

2016 Massachusetts Science and Technology/Engineering Curriculum Framework
College Board Standards for College Success: Science
2006 Massachusetts Science and Technology/Engineering Curriculum Framework
Benchmarks for Science Literacy, AAAS
Ocean Literacy The Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts of Ocean Sciences: March 2013 and Ocean Literacy Network. The Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) and Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California, Berkeley

ELA Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy

Grades 6-12 Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, & Technical Subjects



The Teacher-Friendly Guide to the Geology of the Entire United States

The Teacher-Friendly Guide to the Geology of the Northeastern U.S.

Mr. Gruszka’s Earth Science GIFtionary

Earth Science Animations

Flash animations from Essentials of Geology, W.W. Norton.

Earth Portrait of a Planet, W.W. Norton.

Exploring Earth Visualizations

Astronomy animations. The Essential Cosmic Perspective. Pearson/Addison Wesley.


Plate tectonic apps and animations

Many topics apps

Minerals, Rocks, Maps, Faults, Earthquakes

People in the U.S., People around the world, People in California, People in the San Diego Region, Business

Nongovernmental organizations, Living things and the environment, Mapping and geospatial information technologies, What is a scientific model?

Chemistry, Physics, Math and statistics, Developing energy technologies

Our water supply, Environment, Budget, What’s a scientist or an engineer?

How do scientists think?, How scientists communicate their findings


Why study Earth Science?

The earth sciences include studies of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and the relations among them and with the biosphere. Study of the earth sciences directly addresses several issues of great societal concern, including but not limited to natural disasters such as devastating hurricanes, and the global effects of a changing climate.

The earth sciences are important because they are a window into other sciences, and because they help students develop critical thinking skills. In addition, the earth sciences connect the world of science with all students’ daily experiences.

The weather is a never-ending “science experiment” in progress outside classroom windows. Teachers with sound training in the earth science basics have endlessly interesting and relevant material to draw upon that connects science with the students’ past experiences and daily lives.

Earth science helps students see how all of the sciences are related because to study the Earth, scientists and students must use the knowledge and techniques of several disciplines, including but not limited to physics, chemistry, mathematics, and computer science. Learning about the Earth helps students realize that their world is made of interconnected, dynamic systems.

In addition, the earth sciences, and especially weather, connect science with the world students come to know through the news media, especially television. Surveys over the past several years have shown that television is the primary source of news for the majority of Americans. With the exception of weather, most of the science that television news presents is about health and medicine. In fact, television weathercasters are likely to be the only representatives of science students and their parents regularly see….

The value of earth science classes goes beyond the intellectual benefits. Over the years, various reports have testified to the life-saving value of earth science education. One of the most dramatic of these came from the 26 December 2004 tsunami that devastated coastal areas around the Indian Ocean, killing as many as 300,000 people. A British schoolgirl, who had studied tsunamis in school, recognized precursors of the tsunami that was about to hit the beach in Thailand she was visiting. The schoolgirl persuaded her mother to shout a warning, which is credited with saving 100 people on the beach.

In the United States, students in earth science classes learn how to react when endangered by tornadoes, hurricanes, floods, lightning, and other hazards. The devastating hurricanes of 2005 showed that more Americans still need to better understand the potential effects of dangerous weather. This education could begin in school. As an example of the benefits of such education, two scientists from the National Severe Storms Laboratory, writing in the June 2002 issue of the journal Weather and Forecasting, credit school safety lessons with the absence of anyone between the ages 5 and 23 among the 36 people killed by the 3 May 1999 Oklahoma City tornado.

Of course, the benefits of earth science education go far beyond learning how to cope with natural disasters. Even if students never use what they learn in earth science classes to save their lives or the lives of others, they will benefit from learning the critical thinking skills associated with scientific endeavors and learning more about how the world works. Students who study the earth sciences will better understand the value of the Earth’s resources, how its components are related, and the need to care for the Earth. Men and women who possess a basic understanding of the Earth will be able to participate as informed citizens in policy debates, such as about climate change. Society will be the ultimate beneficiary as its citizens become more aware of the science that explains weather, earth’s water, the oceans, and the Earth itself.

– From Earth Science Education, Adopted by American Meteorological Society Council, 29 January 2006. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 87

New Hampshire Geologic Survey publications
Bulletins with maps, maps, subject reports and Fact Sheets. Publications can be found using one of three methods below:
NH Geological Survey Publiations


This website is educational. Materials within it are being used in accord with the Fair Use doctrine, as defined by United States law.

§107. Limitations on Exclusive Rights: Fair Use

Notwithstanding the provisions of section 106, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phone records or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use, the factors to be considered shall include:

the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes;
the nature of the copyrighted work;
the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and
the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work. (added pub. l 94-553, Title I, 101, Oct 19, 1976, 90 Stat 2546)

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