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Geography and maps

First let’s clarify the difference between:
geometry, geology, geography and geodesy.


the branch of mathematics concerned with the properties and relations of points, lines, surfaces, solids.



the science that deals with the earth’s physical structure and substance, its history, and the processes that act on it.

Moho discontinuity


the spatial study of Earth’s landscapes, peoples, places and environments. This includes cartography (map-making.)

…we have a wide variety of sub-disciplines in the field of geography (like political geography, cultural geography, physical geography, etc.).
Businesses use geography when they decide WHERE to locate a new plant. Real estate developers use geography when they decide WHERE to build a new housing development.

– World Regional Geography GEG 101, http://harpercollege.edu/mhealy/g101ilec/intro/int/g3intrfr.htm

Cartography (map making)

Different types of maps one may come across in geography.



Geodesy combines applied mathematics and earth sciences to deals with the measurement and representation of the Earth (or any planet)

Geodesists study geodynamical phenomena such as crustal motion, tides, and polar motion. For this they design global and national control networks, using space and terrestrial techniques while relying on datums and coordinate systems.

(Canadian council for geographic education)


To understand basic physical systems that affect everyday life (e.g. earth-sun relationships, water cycles, wind and ocean currents).

To learn the location of places and the physical and cultural characteristics of those places in order to function more effectively in our increasingly interdependent world.

To understand the geography of past times and how geography has played important roles in the evolution of people, their ideas, places and environments.

To develop a mental map of your community, province or territory, country and the world so that you can understand the “where” of places and events.

To explain how the processes of human and physical systems have arranged and sometimes changed the surface of the Earth.

To understand the spatial organization of society and see order in what often appears to be random scattering of people and places.

To recognize spatial distributions at all scales — local and worldwide — in order to understand the complex connectivity of people and places.

To be able to make sensible judgements about matters involving relationships between the physical environment and society.

To appreciate Earth as the homeland of humankind and provide insight for wise management decisions about how the planet’s resources should be used.

To understand global interdependence and to become a better global citizen.

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