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# Maps and cartography

What is a map? How do we represent a 3D world on a 2D map?
https://web.archive.org/web/20170704133633/http://www.progonos.com/furuti/MapProj/Normal/TOC/cartTOC.html

## The fundamental problem

### Try to peel an orange into a flattened shape that accurately shows what’s on the surface:

Image from blogs.lincoln.ac.nz

Map Projections Part 1: Where on Earth are we?

### When making maps, it’s the same set of choices to make. And this is where map projections come in. Projections are methods that translate the three-dimensional surface of the earth (the globe) into flat, two-dimensional spaces (maps) and there are a multitude available.

This section from Map Projections Part 1: Where on Earth are we?, GIS Blog

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### Sometimes, a projection can be chosen so that it minimises several distortions at one time, a sort of compromise that has been used on many New Zealand maps (we’ll look at this more closely later on).

This section from “Map Projections Part 2: The Allegory of the Cave”, GIS Blog

## Learning Standards

Massachusetts Science and Technology/Engineering Curriculum Framework

4-ESS2-2. Analyze and interpret maps of Earth’s mountain ranges, deep ocean trenches,
volcanoes, and earthquake epicenters to describe patterns of these features and their
locations relative to boundaries between continents and oceans.

Science and Engineering Practices – 4. Analyzing and Interpreting Data – Use graphical displays (e.g., maps, charts, graphs, and/or tables) of large data sets to identify temporal and spatial relationships.

College Board Standards for College Success: Science

Standard SP.3 – Data Analysis – Searching for regularities and patterns in observations and measurements (i.e., data analysis)
Objective SP.3.1 – Analyzing Data for Patterns

Objective SP.4.2 – Models and Representations –  Students construct, use, re-express and revise models and representations of natural and designed objects, systems, phenomena and scientific ideas in the appropriate context and in formulating their explanation.

ELA Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy

English Language Arts Standards » Science & Technical Subjects » Grade 9-10

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RST.9-10.4
Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 9-10 texts and topics.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RST.9-10.7
Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RST.11-12.7
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem.