Latitude and longitude, aka parallels and meridians
Parallels, lines of latitude
Meridians, lines of longitude
There’s a great lesson on this here: https://uag-earthsci.blogspot.com/2019/04/day-131-giftionary-map-coordinates-and.html
Next Generation Science Standards
4-ESS2-2 Earth’s Systems – Analyze and interpret data from maps to describe patterns of Earth’s features. [Clarification Statement: Maps can include topographic maps of Earth’s land and ocean floor, as well as maps of the locations of mountains, continental boundaries, volcanoes, and earthquakes.]
Standard 1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, geospatial technologies, and spatial thinking to understand and communicate information.
1. Properties and functions of geographic representations—such as maps, globes, graphs, diagrams, aerial and other photographs, remotely sensed images, and geographic visualization. Therefore, the student is able to:
A. Identify and describe the properties (position and orientation, symbols, scale, perspective, coordinate systems) and functions of geographic representations, as exemplified by being able to – identify and describe the properties of a variety of maps and globes (e.g., title, legend, cardinal and intermediate directions, scale, symbols, grid, principal parallels, meridians) and purposes (wayfinding, reference, thematic).
College Board Standards For College Success: Science
ESH-PE.1.3.1 Analyze earthquake data to find patterns in earthquake behavior and location.
ESH-PE.1.3.1a Locate, using latitude and longitude, earthquake data on a map.ESH-PE.2.1.1 Locate, by latitude, different zones of global atmospheric circulation patterns, and describe how these patterns interact with ocean systems on Earth.
ESH-PE.2.2.2a Explain why Earth’s surface heats unevenly at different locations due to variables such as albedo, latitude and surface cover.
ESH-PE.2.4.1 Explain climatic conditions in different locations, in terms of latitude, elevation, local topography and distance from large bodies of water.
Common Core ELA History/Social Studies
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-8.7 . Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts.