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Oceanography

The Ocean Floor

image and text from http://www.mrtrent.com/2011/12/week-of-december-5-2011.html

 

  1. I. How do scientist study the ocean floor?
    1. The ocean floor can be as much at 11,000 meters below the surface!
    2. b‭.‬ —ROV’s (Remotely Operated Vehicles)
    3. c‭.‬ —SONAR (Sound Nagivation And Ranging)
    4. d‭.‬ —Satellites  (Geosat- once a top secret military satellite)
    5. II. What are the two major regions of the ocean?
    6. a‭.‬ —Continental Margin-  the edge of a continent that is covered by water.
    7. b‭.‬ —Deep-ocean Basin-  begins at the edge of the continental margin and extends under the deepest parts of the ocean.
    8. III. The Continental Shelf
    9. a‭.‬ —What is it?  Starts at the shoreline and slopes gently toward open ocean (200 m)
    10. b‭.‬ —Where is it located?  The Continental Margin
    11. IV. The Continental Slope
    12. a‭.‬ —What is it?  The steepest part of the continental margin.  (200 m – 4,000 m)
    13. b‭.‬ —Where is it located?  Begins at the edge of the continental shelf and continues to continental rise
    14. V. The Continental Rise
    15. a‭.‬ —What is it?  The boundary between the continental margin and the deep-ocean basin.
    16. b‭.‬ —Where is it located?  The base of the continental slope
    17. VI. The Abyssal Plain
    18. a‭.‬ —What is it?  Flat, almost level part of the ocean basin
    19. b‭.‬ —Where is it located?  Between continental margins in deep ocean
    20. VII. The Mid-Ocean Ridge
    21. a‭.‬ —What is it?  A long mountain chain that forms from moving tectonic plates
    22. b‭.‬ —Where is it located?  Floor of the abyssal plain
    23. VIII. Rift Valley
    24. a‭.‬ —What is it?  A crack in the ocean floor where magma rises and cools
    25. b‭.‬ —Where is it located?  In the mid-ocean ridge
    26. IX. Ocean Trench
    27. a‭.‬ —What is it?  Long, narrow valleys that can be up to 11,000 m deep
    28. b‭.‬ —Where is it located?  Where tectonic plates are moving together (subduction)

The Ocean floor off of New York, and off of Boston

http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2003/of03-372/html/discussion.html

Boston

http://soundwaves.usgs.gov/2006/11/fieldwork4.html

Eastern Massachusetts, mapped in 2006. Flat-gray areas, land; sea floor in survey area is color coded for depth, ranging from red (shallow) to dark blue (deep) http://soundwaves.usgs.gov/2006/11/fieldwork4.html

 

Ocean Water and Ocean Life

The Dynamic Ocean

“How the Oceans Came to Be” packet: How the ocean came to be
The oceans of water molecules trapped under the oceans, deep within the earth’s crust

 

http://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/jun/13/earth-may-have-underground-ocean-three-times-that-on-surface

http://www.extremetech.com/extreme/184564-scientists-discover-an-ocean-400-miles-beneath-our-feet-that-could-fill-our-oceans-three-times-over
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/03/140312150229.htm

 

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