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How do we learn about the ocean?


In the deep sea, submersibles, submarines

Origin of the oceans

Distribution of Earth’s water, p.409

The oceans


chemical properties of seawater

sources of seasalt

the salt cycle (p.415)

physical properties of seawater

Ocean layering

Water masses 419

Ocean movements

Marine environment: shoreline

formation of shore features

depositional features

Effects of oceans on the climate. Mr. Gruszka’s class.

natural and human effects on the coast

manmade protective structures

Protecting coastal cities from rising sea levels

If all land ice melted how would coastlines change

New York City: Protecting it from rising sea levels

Boston MA: Proposals to protect the greater Boston area

New Orleans, Louisiana – Protecting from rising sea levels

Changes in sea level

Seafloor features

continental margin

continental shelf p.447

continental slope

continental rise

deep ocean basins

marine sediments 453


Special topics

The ocean floor, near NY and MA

Image from Topography, shaded relief, and backscatter intensity of the Hudson Shelf Valley

Hudson shelf valley off off New York City

USGS Open-File Report 03-372, Topography, shaded relief, and backscatter intensity of the Hudson Shelf Valley, offshore of New York

The ocean floor off of Massachusetts.


Eastern Massachusetts, mapped in 2006. Flat-gray areas, land; sea floor in survey area is color coded for depth, ranging from red (shallow) to dark blue (deep) http://soundwaves.usgs.gov/2006/11/fieldwork4.html


Water under the Earth’s crust

Water molecules trapped under the oceans, deep within the earth’s crust





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