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Forces in nature

Four forces in nature

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr162/lect/cosmology/forces.html

There are 4 fundamental forces that have been identified.
In our present Universe they have rather different properties.

Properties of the Fundamental Forces

  • The strong interaction is very strong, but very short-ranged.
    It acts only over ranges of order 10-13 centimeters.
    It is responsible for holding the nuclei of atoms together.
    It is basically attractive, but can be effectively repulsive in some circumstances.
  • The electromagnetic force causes electric and magnetic effects such as the repulsion between like electrical charges or the interaction of bar magnets.
    It is long-ranged, but much weaker than the strong force.
    It can be attractive or repulsive, and acts only between pieces of matter carrying electrical charge.
  • The weak force is responsible for radioactive decay and neutrino interactions.
    It has a very short range and, as its name indicates, it is very weak.
  • The gravitational force is weak, but very long ranged.
    It is always attractive, and acts between any two pieces of matter in the Universe since mass is its source.

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