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# Internal combustion engines

### Here’s an example – Newcomen’s engine, a precursor of the steam engine. Notice the boiler heated from beneath.

This was the first practical device to harness steam to produce mechanical work. Newcomen engines were used throughout Britain and Europe, principally to pump water out of mines. Hundreds were constructed through the 18th century. (Wikipedia)

Image from Newcomen atmospheric engine, Wikipedia.

## 4 stroke internal combustion engines

This type of engines powers your typical automobile. (This section is from STM, SpeedTech MotorSport, Performance Vehicle Specialists, New Zealand.)

## How a car engine works

### Similar principles operate in the aerospace industry. Honeywell jet engine cores are a good example.

Inside the Gas Turbine Engine Core

## Learning Standards

2016 Massachusetts Science and Technology/Engineering Curriculum Framework

HS-PS3-2. Develop and use a model to illustrate that energy at the macroscopic scale can be accounted for as either motions of particles and objects or energy stored in fields.
Clarification Statements: Examples of phenomena at the macroscopic scale could include evaporation and condensation, the conversion of kinetic energy to thermal energy,

HS-PS3-4a. Provide evidence that when two objects of different temperature are in thermal contact within a closed system, the transfer of thermal energy from higher temperature objects to lower-temperature objects results in thermal equilibrium, or a more uniform energy distribution among the objects and that temperature changes
necessary to achieve thermal equilibrium depend on the specific heat values of the two substances. Energy changes should be described both quantitatively in a single phase (Q =m·c·∆T) and conceptually either in a single phase or during a phase change.

Next Generation Science Standards

HS-PS3-4. Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that the transfer of thermal energy when two components of different temperature are combined within a closed system results in a more uniform energy distribution among the components in the system (second law of thermodynamics).

Influence of Science, Engineering and Technology on Society and the Natural World: Modern civilization depends on major technological systems. Engineers continuously modify these technological systems by applying scientific knowledge and engineering design practices to increase benefits while decreasing costs and risks. (HS-PS3-3)

Changes of energy and matter in a system can be described in terms of energy and matter flows into, out of, and within that system. (HS-PS3-3)

Energy cannot be created or destroyed—only moves between one place and another place, between objects and/or fields, or between systems. (HS-PS3-2)

AP Physics

7.B.2.1: The student is able to connect qualitatively the second law of thermodynamics in terms of the state function called entropy and how it (entropy) behaves in reversible and irreversible processes. [SP 7.1]
– AP Physics Course and Exam Description