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# Scientific model

### Models can be physical, conceptual or mathematical. Let’s look at models in all these categories.

from Mrs. A. J. Sundstrom’s Science Page, Scientific modeling

## How models are used in engineering

### We can visualize and refine a design,

from the New York Times article, Genoa Bridge Collapse: The Road to Tragedy. 9/6/2018

## Characteristics of good models

### For more info see Science uses models to explain aspects of the real world.

Reading and questions, Mrs. Sundstrom’s Science Page:

Three science words we should stop using. Rhett Allain.

Annenberg Learner: A Closer Look: Scientific Models

Even Theories Change: Understanding Science (UC Museum of Paleontology of the University of California at Berkeley)

Don’t you dare try to teach science without building models. Rhett Allain.

A model world In economics, climate science and public health, computer models help us decide how to act. But can we trust them? Aeon.Com

Modeling in Scientific Research. VisionLearning.Com

What is mathematical modeling? By Vahid Dabbaghian

# Learning Standards

From Appendix F, Science and Engineering Practices in the NGSS

Modeling can begin in the earliest grades, with students’ models progressing from concrete “pictures” and/or physical scale models (e.g., a toy car) to more abstract representations of relevant relationships in later grades, such as a diagram representing forces on a particular object in a system. (NRC Framework, 2012, p. 58)

Nastional Science Teachers Association Next Gen Science Standards: Science and Engineering Practices

Modeling in 6–8
This builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to developing, using, and revising models to describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems.
* Evaluate limitations of a model for a proposed object or tool.
* Develop or modify a model—based on evidence – to match what happens if a variable or component of a system is changed.
* Use and/or develop a model of simple systems with uncertain and less predictable factors.
* Develop and/or revise a model to show the relationships among variables, including those that are not observable but predict observable phenomena.
* Develop and/or use a model to predict and/or describe phenomena.
* Develop a model to describe unobservable mechanisms.
* Develop and/or use a model to generate data to test ideas about phenomena in natural or designed systems, including those representing inputs and outputs, and those at unobservable scales.

High School: Modeling in 9–12
This builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed world(s).
* Evaluate merits and limitations of two different models of the same proposed tool, process, mechanism, or system in order to select or revise a model that best fits the evidence or design criteria.
* Design a test of a model to ascertain its reliability.
* Develop, revise, and/or use a model based on evidence to illustrate and/or predict the relationships between systems or between components of a system.
* Develop and/or use multiple types of models to provide mechanistic accounts and/or predict phenomena, and move flexibly between model types based on merits and limitations.
* Use a model to provide mechanistic accounts of phenomena.
* Develop a complex model that allows for manipulation and testing of a proposed process or system.
* Develop and/or use a model (including mathematical and computational) to generate data to support explanations, predict