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Metabolism

There’s no article here at the moment; this is a skeleton for what we’re going to build.

Introduction

https://www.quora.com/What-is-metabolism-What-are-some-examples

anabolic / anabolism

catabolic / catabolism

The endocrine system is a system of organs and their hormones, used to regulate our metabolism.

https://kaiserscience.wordpress.com/biology-the-living-environment/physiology/endocrine-system/

Metabolic map

(simplified)

Metabolism pathways Wikimedia

Metabolic map

(more complete)

Related articles

https://kaiserscience.wordpress.com/2016/05/10/scaling-and-biophysics/

Metabolism in cellular respiration

https://kaiserscience.wordpress.com/biology-the-living-environment/chemistry-of-life/cellular-respiration-intro/

External resources

Learning Standards

TBA

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Chlorine and Bleach terminology

Terminology alert: Sometimes people use the same word to describe different things. For example, “chlorine” can refer to:

Chlorine

a single, neutral, chlorine atom. These are unstable.
We normally never encounter one.
They almost instantly bind to each other to form chlorine molecules.

Chlorine

molecule (Cl2) – deadly gas

Chlorine

A chlorine ion is chlorine atom that has picked up an extra electron.
In small quantities these ions are essential for life.

“Chlorine”

There are many chemicals used to bleach laundry, or disinfect swimming pools.
The most common is “chlorine bleach”, sodium hypochlorite.
Chemical formula is NaOCl
In water this breaks down into a sodium cation (Na+) and a hypochlorite anion (OCl
or ClO− ).

Visualizing the electron distribution in sodium hypochlorite a little more accurately.

How to make sodium hypochlorite

Add chlorine gas (Cl2) to caustic soda (NaOH).

Then sodium hypochlorite, water (H2O) and salt (NaCl) are produced according to the following reaction:

Cl2 + 2NaOH + → NaOCl + NaCl + H2O

How does sodium hypochlorite disinfection work?

By adding hypochlorite to water, hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is formed:

NaOCl + H2O → HOCl + NaOH

Hypochlorous acid is divided into hydrochloric acid (HCl) and oxygen (O).

Sodium hypochlorite is effective against bacteria, viruses and fungi.

Green algae

Are green algae plants?

Red algae and brown algae aren’t plants – they’re protists – an entirely different kingdom of life.

Blue-green algae – photosynthetic bacteria.

But what about green algae – are they plants?

It depends on whom you ask:

Green Algae_Pond

Image from Slideshare.net/VijayaraghavanGonuguntla/effluent-treat

Types of algae

The Green Algae Tree of Life (GrAToL)

Botanists (plant scientists) consider green algae plants:

They perform photosynthesis using chlorophyll.
They are the ancestors of modern day land-plants.
They’re part of the land-plant family tree.
End of story -> Plants! 🙂

Zoologists (animal and protist scientists) classify green algae as protozoans (not plants)

In this view, green algae can’t be plants because:

1) Most are single-celled (unicellular), too small to be seen without a microscope.
2) When not single celled, they live in colonies. Don’t form plant tissue.
3) They can move on their own. Some swim with flagella.
4)  They have no vascular system to transport nutrients.
5) They do not have true roots, shoots, or veins.
6)  They have no stems, leaves or roots.

Why can’t the answer be a simple “yes they are” or “no they are not?” Because life wasn’t created with well-defined boundaries – and life today still doesn’t have such boundaries. Life started as simple organisms, and developed over time, slowly branching out to create new forms, with new characteristics. Today’s green algae resembles the early forms of life that later gave rise to both plants and to protists.  It is a kind of “living fossil.

Plant and green algae family tree

Plant Green Algae Prasinophytes chlorophytes clade

from Leliaert F., Verbruggen H. & Zechman F.W. (2011) Into the deep: New discoveries at the base of the green plant phylogeny. BioEssays 33: 683-692

Frederik Leliaert writes:

This figure shows the phylogenetic relationships among the main lineages of green plants. The tree topology is a composite on accepted relationships based on molecular phylogenetic evidence. Uncertain phylogenetic relationships are indicated by polytomies. The divergence times are rough approximations based on the fossil record and molecular clock estimates. These age estimates should be interpreted with care as different molecular clock studies have shown variation in divergence times between major green plant lineages.  Drawings illustrate representatives of each lineage.

Source: Leliaert F., Verbruggen H. & Zechman F.W. (2011) Into the deep: New discoveries at the base of the green plant phylogeny. BioEssays 33: 683-692

 

Learning Standards

Massachusetts Science and Technology/Engineering Curriculum Framework

Life Science (Biology), Grades 6–8. Classify organisms into the currently recognized kingdoms according to characteristics that they share. Be familiar with organisms from each kingdom.

Biology, High School – 5.2 Describe species as reproductively distinct groups of organisms. Recognize that species are further classified into a hierarchical taxonomic system (kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species) based on morphological, behavioral, and molecular similarities.

Benchmarks for Science Literacy, American Association for the Advancement of Science

Students should begin to extend their attention from external anatomy to internal structures and functions. Patterns of development may be brought in to further illustrate similarities and differences among organisms. Also, they should move from their invented classification systems to those used in modern biology… A classification system is a framework created by scientists for describing the vast diversity of organisms, indicating the degree of relatedness between organisms, and framing research questions.

SAT Biology Subject Area Test

Evolution and diversity: Origin of life, evidence of evolution, patterns of evolution, natural selection, speciation, classification and diversity of organisms.

Teaching About Evolution and the Nature of Science, National Academy Press (1998)

Biological classifications are based on how organisms are related. Organisms are classified into a hierarchy of groups and subgroups based on similarities which reflect their evolutionary relationships. Species is the most fundamental unit of classification.

 

Angiosperms and Gymnosperms

Intro

Angiosperms

There are over 250,000 species of angiosperms. Angiosperms are flowering plants. They make up around 80 percent of all the living plant species on Earth.

  • Dicots

  • monocots

Angiosperm resources

PBS Natureworks: Angiosperms

Gymnosperms

{excerpted from http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/gymnosperms-characteristics-definition-types.html }

Gymnosperms were the first plants to have seeds.
They have naked seeds – as they do not have flowers
The seeds develop on the surface of the reproductive structures of the plants, rather than being contained in a specialized ovary.
These seeds are often found on the surface of cones and short stalks.

Characteristics of Gymnosperms
They do not have an outer covering (shell) around their seeds.
They do not produce flowers.
They do not produce fruits.
They are pollinated by the wind.

Examples include conifers

conifers

Gymnosperm resources

Education Portal: Gymnosperms

Study.com gymnosperms-characteristics-definition-types

Monocot versus dicot

Two types of seeds, monocots and dictos.

monocot v dicot seeds

Let’s watch the two types sprout:

Grass (monocot) sprouting on left. The cotyledon remains underground and is not visible). Compare to a dicot sprouting on the right.

Monocot_vs_dicot_sprouting

{ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monocotyledon }

What kinds of plants come from these different types of seeds?

Monocot plants versus dicot plants

monocot v dicot

Comparison chart

Gymnosperms vs angiosperms

 

Learning Standards

Massachusetts Science and Technology/Engineering Curriculum Framework

Life Science (Biology), Grades 6–8.
Classify organisms into the currently recognized kingdoms according to characteristics that they share. Be familiar with organisms from each kingdom.

Biology, High School
5.2 Describe species as reproductively distinct groups of organisms. Recognize that species are further classified into a hierarchical taxonomic system (kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species) based on morphological, behavioral, and molecular similarities.

Benchmarks for Science Literacy, American Association for the Advancement of Science

Students should begin to extend their attention from external anatomy to internal structures and functions. Patterns of development may be brought in to further illustrate similarities and differences among organisms. Also, they should move from their invented classification systems to those used in modern biology… A classification system is a framework created by scientists for describing the vast diversity of organisms, indicating the degree of relatedness between organisms, and framing research questions.

SAT Biology Subject Area Test

Evolution and diversity: Origin of life, evidence of evolution, patterns of evolution, natural selection, speciation, classification and diversity of organisms.

Teaching About Evolution and the Nature of Science, National Academy Press (1998)

Biological classifications are based on how organisms are related. Organisms are classified into a hierarchy of groups and subgroups based on similarities which reflect their evolutionary relationships. Species is the most fundamental unit of classification.

Intro to classification

Worksheets

Intro to classification lesson

What are animals

What are we learning?

  Classification of animals

  Characteristics of animals

  The major animal groups

Why are we learning this?

The study of animals is essential to the understanding of life on Earth. Animals are one of the many branches of earth’s life.

Animal kingdom is just one part of the tree of life

We see it here on the far right.

Animals include mammals, including humans, insects, birds, fish and more.

Phylogenetic Tree of Life by Ciccarelli in March 2006 Science

Image by Madeleine Price Ball. Simplified universal phylogenetic tree, made using information from the Interactive Tree of Life. Ciccarelli, et al., Mar 3 2006, Science Vol. 311

Characteristics of animals

Multicellular – animals are made of many cells.

Animals are differentiated into separate tissues. *

* except for the simplest forms, e.g. sea sponges.

Eukaryotic – cells have a nucleus, and many organelles.

Each organelle has its own job.

c6026-animal252bcell252blabeled252bblue252blavendar

Cell have flexible cell membranes

(only plants and bacteria have rigid cell walls)

Cell membrane lipid bilayer animation

Animals have a body plan that becomes fixed as they develop.
It’s not just random growth of cells.

Animals are motile – they can move (as opposed to plants, which can’t)

penguin low friction GIF

Animals are heterotrophs – they must eat other organisms for sustenance.

Autotroph Heterotroph

Classification of animals

Animals are divided into sub-groups.

classification of animals

Vertebrates: animals with a backbone

birds, mammals, amphibians, reptiles (*), fish.

(*) Reptiles, well, they’re kind of not really a meaningful group – we’ll learn about that later.

Invertebrates: animals without a backbone

Coelenterata – comb jellies, coral animals, true jellies (“jellyfish), sea anemones, etc.

Flatworms – Planarians, flukes and tapeworms

Annelids – over 17,000 species including ragworms, earthworms, and leeches.

Mollusks – clams, oysters, octopuses, squid, snails

Arthropods – millipedes, centipedes, insects, spiders, scorpions, crabs, lobsters, shrimp

Arachnids – 100,000 species of spiders, scorpions, ticks, mites, etc.

Crustacean – 17,000 species of crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill and barnacles.

Insects – over a million different species!

Myriapoda – Over 13,000 species of centipedes and millipedes

Sea sponges (not shown on the diagram above)

 

Learning Standards

Massachusetts Science and Technology/Engineering Curriculum Framework

Life Science (Biology), Grades 6–8.
Classify organisms into the currently recognized kingdoms according to characteristics that they share. Be familiar with organisms from each kingdom.

Biology, High School
5.2 Describe species as reproductively distinct groups of organisms. Recognize that species are further classified into a hierarchical taxonomic system (kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species) based on morphological, behavioral, and molecular similarities.

Benchmarks for Science Literacy, American Association for the Advancement of Science

Students should begin to extend their attention from external anatomy to internal structures and functions. Patterns of development may be brought in to further illustrate similarities and differences among organisms. Also, they should move from their invented classification systems to those used in modern biology… A classification system is a framework created by scientists for describing the vast diversity of organisms, indicating the degree of relatedness between organisms, and framing research questions.

SAT Biology Subject Area Test

Evolution and diversity: Origin of life, evidence of evolution, patterns of evolution, natural selection, speciation, classification and diversity of organisms.

Teaching About Evolution and the Nature of Science, National Academy Press (1998)

Biological classifications are based on how organisms are related. Organisms are classified into a hierarchy of groups and subgroups based on similarities which reflect their evolutionary relationships. Species is the most fundamental unit of classification.

What is a species?

What is a species?

It first meant a distinctly-describable type.

Then, a distinct type that could not interbreed;

Then, a distinct types that could breed and produce fertile offspring.

Today, a species is defined as: A group that, in natural surroundings, breeds exclusively within the group.

Like any definition, it has exceptions, such as coyotes, dogs, and wolves, which can interbreed, yet are considered separate species. But this definition works fairly well.

– Adapted from “An Online Introduction to the Biology of Animals and Plants” by Michael McDarby, Fulton-Montgomery Community College.
http://faculty.fmcc.suny.edu/mcdarby/animals&plantsbook/History/02-Explaining-Life-Classification.htm

Example of salamanders evolving today

Happening in the San Joaquin Valley, central California.

…a rare but fascinating phenomenon [is] known as “ring species.” This occurs when a single species becomes geographically distributed in a circular pattern over a large area. Immediately adjacent or neighboring populations of the species vary slightly but can interbreed. But at the extremes of the distribution — the opposite ends of the pattern that link to form a circle — natural variation has produced so much difference between the populations that they function as though they were two separate, non-interbreeding species.

this can be likened to a spiral-shaped parking garage. A driver notices only a gentle rise as he ascends the spiral, but after making one complete circle, he finds himself an entire floor above where he started.

A well-studied example of a ring species is the salamander Ensatina escholtzii of the Pacific Coast region of the United States. In Southern California, naturalists have found what look like two distinct species scrabbling across the ground. One is marked with strong, dark blotches in a cryptic pattern that camouflages it well. The other is more uniform and brighter, with bright yellow eyes, apparently in mimicry of the deadly poisonous western newt. These two populations coexist in some areas but do not interbreed — and evidently cannot do so.

Moving up the state, the two populations are divided geographically, with the dark, cryptic form occupying the inland mountains and the conspicuous mimic living along the coast. Still farther to the north, in northern California and Oregon, the two populations merge, and only one form is found. In this area, it is clear that what looked like two separate species in the south are in fact a single species with several interbreeding subspecies, joined together in one continuous ring.”
– http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/05/2/l_052_05.html

Evolution in action